Educational Technology Research and Development

, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp 123–159 | Cite as

A developmental study on a SPAT design model for mobile learning

  • Soyoung ParkEmail author
Development Article


This paper explores another format for mobile learning (mLearning) content consisting of Still Pictures, Audio, and Text (SPAT; Rha, Instructional contents delivery through SPAT format in mobile environment: introduction to gglearn system, Global Knowledge Alliance International Forum, 2015) by considering a variety of mLearning needs. SPAT-based content is deemed to have potential for mLearning because the SPAT format can provide mobile content scenes individually, where each scene is an integration of independent still pictures, audio, and textual elements. This study aims to (1) expand the scope of mLearning materials from streaming video to SPAT and (2) develop a design model for SPAT-based mLearning content. An initial model was constructed based on a literature review and experiential data collection, from which essential processes and principles were derived. Then, the model was revised and refined by iterating the model between the researcher and the instructional designers. The resulting SPAT design model consists of two parts: a design process and design principles along with related guidelines for each principle. The model is expected to enhance effective and efficient learning and to systematically and comprehensively guide instructional design.


SPAT design Design model Design principle Mobile learning Integration of still picture, audio and text 



This paper is based on my doctoral dissertation and I would like to thank professor IlJu Rha at Seoul National University for introducing the concept of “SPAT” to me and fully supporting my research. I also thank the anonymous reviewers whose insightful and supportive comments greatly contributed to improving the earlier version of this paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SeoulKorea

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