Designing for 21st century learning online: a heuristic method to enable educator learning support roles
- 207 Downloads
With the growing emphasis on developing 21st century skills among today’s youth, there is continued optimism about the possibilities granted by increasing access to networked technologies, particularly for encouraging youth to pursue their interests and take ownership of their learning. Yet, research demonstrates the importance of adult support in realizing the promise of achieving these outcomes. Designers of such systems are thus faced with the need to create youth-centered spaces that also provide adult facilitation of learning. This paper presents an adaptation of the traditional heuristic evaluation method which provides designers of online learning systems with a holistic view of how adult learning support is enabled across the system. We describe how the heuristic evaluation method was adapted, and through a case example analyzing one online social learning system used in a middle school context, we demonstrate how it can be used to help identify areas for improvement and promising areas for further research. We also present a framework of heuristics which reflect specific educator learning support roles that have been found to be important for youth learning, particularly for supporting 21st century skills. This work contributes a novel heuristic evaluation method that can help designers of online learning platforms attend not only the experiences of learners, but also to how educators are enabled to support their learning.
KeywordsHeuristic evaluation Online teaching roles User interfaces 21st century learning Social learning networks
This study was funded by National Science Foundation (Grant Number 1325004).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ahn, J. (2013, April). What can we learn from Facebook activity?: Using social learning analytics to observe new media literacy skills. In Proceedings of the third international conference on learning analytics and knowledge (pp. 135–144). Association for Computing Machinery.Google Scholar
- Allen, I. & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the US 2011. Sloan Consortium Report.Google Scholar
- Alsumait, A., & Al-Osaimi, A. (2009, December). Usability heuristics evaluation for child e-learning applications. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on information integration and web-based applications & services (pp. 425–430). Association for Computing Machinery.Google Scholar
- Barron, B., Gomez, K., Pinkard, N., & Martin, C. K. (2014). Digital youth network: Cultivating digital media citizenship in urban communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder, M. (Eds.). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Brennan, K., Monroy-Hernández, A., & Resnick, M. (2010). Making projects, making friends: Online community as catalyst for interactive media creation. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2010(128), 75–83.Google Scholar
- Dringus, L. P., & Cohen, M. S. (2005). An adaptable usability heuristic checklist for online courses. In Frontiers in education, 2005. FIE’05. Proceedings 35th annual conference (pp. T2H-6–T2H-11). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Georgsson, M., Weir, C., & Staggers, N. (2014). Revisiting heuristic evaluation methods to improve the reliability of findings. MIE, 205, 930–934.Google Scholar
- Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., et al. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robison, A. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Lenhart, A. (2015). Teens, social media & technology overview 2015. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project.Google Scholar
- MMS Education. (2012). Survey of K-12 educators on social networking, online communities, and Web 2.0 tools. Report from MMS Education, Newtown, PA.Google Scholar
- Nacu, D., Martin, C. K., & Pinkard, N. (2017). An interface design approach to encouraging online contributions among underrepresented youth. In Y. A. Rankin & J. O. Thomas (Eds.), Moving students of color from consumers to producers of technology (pp. 174–196). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-2005-4.ch009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen, J. (1994). Heuristic evaluation. In Usability inspection methods (Vol. 17(1), pp. 25–62)Google Scholar
- Nielsen, J., & Molich, R. (1990). Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces. In CHI’90 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 249–256). Seattle, WA: Association for Computing Machinery.Google Scholar
- Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/docs/P21_framework_0816.pdf
- Reeves, T., Benson, L., Elliott, D., Grant, M., Holschuh, D., Kim, B., et al. (2002). Usability and instructional design heuristics for e-learning evaluation. In Proceedings of world conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications (pp. 1615–1621). Charlottesville, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
- Reich, J., & Ito, M. (2017). From good intentions to real outcomes: Equity by design in learning technologies. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.Google Scholar
- Staker, H., & Horn, M. B. (2012). Classifying K-12 blended learning. Watertown, MA: Innosight Institute.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia contributors. Learning management system. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. September 2, 2017, 22:06 UTC. Retrieved August 1, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Learning_management_system&oldid=798608757.