# Learner modelling: systematic review of the literature from the last 5 years

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## Abstract

The field of adaptive e-learning is continuously developing. More research is being conducted in this area as adaptive e-learning aims to provide learners with adaptive learning paths and content, according to their individual characteristics and needs, which makes e-learning more efficient and effective. The learner model, which is a representation of different learner’s characteristics, plays a key role in this adaptation. This paper presents a systematic literature review about learner modelling during the last 5 years, describing the different modelled characteristics and the adopted modelling techniques and modeling types: automatic modeling and collaborative modeling. 107 publications were selected and analyzed, and six categories of the modelled characteristics were identified. This literature review contributes to the identification of the learners’ individual traits and presents the most used modelling techniques for each of them. It also identifies the latest research trends of Learner Modeling and generates future research directions in this field.

## Keywords

Learner modelling Systematic literature review Adaptive learning Learner modelling techniques Learner characteristics State of the art## Notes

### Compliance with ethical standards

### Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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