Use of handwriting recognition technologies in tablet-based learning modules for first grade education
Learning through modules on a tablet helps students participate effectively in learning activities in classrooms and provides flexibility in the learning process. This study presents the design and evaluation of an application that is based on handwriting recognition technologies and e-content for the developed learning modules. The application aims to support the handwriting learning process in first grade and provides an efficient interface to the learning modules through the natural form of handwriting input. The learning modules consist of handwriting and arithmetic modules, which were deemed to benefit most from the use of handwriting recognition technologies. The developed e-content was designed to be used in the evaluations of the developed application, rather than being a complete set of exercises. Among the main findings were that the majority of the children in the two evaluations were visibly motivated to use the application for doing exercises and preferred using the tablet over pen–paper, while teachers were concerned about the extra work associated with preparing questions in the new medium. Reflections from the design of the application and students’ and teachers’ perceptions and teachers’ observations in two separate evaluations are presented with related recommendations.
KeywordsInstructional design Handwriting recognition technologies E-content development Tablet First grade
The authors wish to thank TÜBİTAK and the participating schools, students, and teachers for their important contributions, as well as the reviewers for their valuable comments.
This study was funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) with Project Number 113E062 and a Project titled “Development and Implementation of Handwriting Recognition Technology Used in Smart Classes”.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
First author, Berrin Yanikoglu, has received research Grants from TÜBİTAK with the Project titled “Development and Implementation of Handwriting Recognition Technology Used in Smart Classes”. Second author, Aytac Gogus, was the Researcher of this Project. Third author, Emre Inal, was the Research Assistant of this Project. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akbay, M., & Küçük, S. (2013). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin e-kitap kullanımına yönelik görüşleri. [The opinion of the secondary school students about using e-books]. In Paper presented at 7th international computer and instructional technologies symposium, Erzurum, Turkey.Google Scholar
- Alanay, H., Gürol, M., & Aydın, H. (2013). Fatih projesi kapsamındaki pilot okul öğrencilerinin proje hakkındaki tutumları. [The attitudes of students about the FATIH project, among students from pilot schools of FATIH project]. In Paper presented at 7th international computer and instructional technologies symposium, Erzurum, Turkey.Google Scholar
- Artut, K. (2005). İlkögretim (I. kademe-birinci sınıf) yazı öğretiminde temel ilkeler [Basic principles of handwriting teaching at the first grade classrooms]. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 14(1), 69–74.Google Scholar
- BECTA. (2004). Tablet PC. Technical paper. British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA). http://homepages.shu.ac.uk/~edsjlc/ict/becta/technical_papers/pdf/tablet_pc.pdf.
- Bonds-Raacke, J., & Raacke, J. D. (2008). Using tablets in the classroom. An investigation of students’ expectations and reactions. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(3), 235–239.Google Scholar
- Bonnard, Q., Jermann, P., & Legge, A. (2012). Tangible paper interfaces: Interpreting pupils’ manipulations. In Proceedings of ITS (pp. 133–142).Google Scholar
- Branson, R. K. (1978, March). The interservice procedures for instructional systems development. In Educational technology (pp. 11–14). Florida State University. Center for Educational Technology.Google Scholar
- Çelenk, S. (2007). İlkokuma-yazma programı ve öğretimi [Basic reading and writing programs and training]. Ankara: Maya Akademi Yayınları.Google Scholar
- Çelik, M., & Yanikoglu, B. (2011). Probabilistic mathematical formula recognition using a 2D context-free graph grammar. In International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR 2011), USA (pp. 161–166).Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Daşdemir, İ., Cengiz, E., Uzoğlu, M., & Bozdoğan, A. E. (2012). Tablet bilgisayarların fen ve teknoloji derslerinde kullanılmasıyla ilgili fen ve teknoloji öğretmenlerinin görüşlerinin incelenmesi [The opinion of math and science teachers about using tablets in math and science courses]. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(20), 495–511.Google Scholar
- Duran, E. (2009). Bitişik eğik yazı öğretimi çalışmalarının çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Investigation of the handwriting teaching studies in terms of various variables]. Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, Ankara.Google Scholar
- Erdoğan, T., & Erdoğan, Ö. (2012). An analysis of the legibility of cursive handwriting of prospective primary school teacher. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5214–5218.Google Scholar
- FATIH. (2012). FATIH project, movement of enhancing opportunities and improving technology. Ministry of Education. http://fatihprojesi.meb.gov.tr/tr/english.php.
- Galligan, L., Loch, B., McDonald, C., & Taylor, J. (2010). The use of tablet and related technologies in mathematics teaching. Australian Senior Mathematics Journal, 24(1), 38–51.Google Scholar
- Gogus, A., & Yanikoglu, B. (2015). E-content design for tabletPC implementation project. In Proceeding of the International Educational Technology Conference (IETC 2015), Istanbul, May 2015.Google Scholar
- Görhan, M. F., Öncü, S., & Şentürk, A. (2013). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin tablet bilgisayar kullanımı hakkında görüşleri: Öğretime uygunluk ve çekinceler [The opinion of the secondary school students about using tablets: Suitability for instruction and reservations]. In Paper presented at 7th international computer and instructional technologies symposium, Erzurum, Turkey.Google Scholar
- Johnson, G. M. (2013). Tactile input features of hardware: Cognitive processing in relation to digital device. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences, 41(2), 464–469.Google Scholar
- Kosheleva, O., Rusch, A., & Loudina, V. (2007). Pre-service teacher training in mathematics using tablet technology. Informatics in Education, 6(2), 321–334.Google Scholar
- Learmonth, M. (2010). How the iPad became child’s play-and learning tool. Advertising Age, 81(23), 4.Google Scholar
- Mann, A.-M., Hinrichs, U., & Quigley, A. J. (2015). Digital pen technology’s suitability to support handwriting learning. In T. Hammond, A. Adler, S. Valentine, & M. Payton (Eds.), The impact of pen and touch technology on education. Human–computer interaction series (pp. 7–22). Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4.
- Mock, K. (2010). E-learning tools for computer science educators and students. eLearn Magazine, an ACM Publication. http://elearnmag.acm.org/archive.cfm?aid=1833510.
- Özkale, A., & Koç, M. (2014). Tablet computers and their usage in educational settings: A literature review. SDU International Journal of Educational Studies, 1(1), 24–35.Google Scholar
- Pamuk, S., Çakır, R., Ergun, M., Yılmaz, H. B., & Ayaş, C. (2013). The use of tablet PC and interactive board from the perspectives of teachers and students: Evaluation of the FATİH project. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 1815–1822.Google Scholar
- Read, J. C., MacFarlane, S., & Horton, M. (2005). The usability of handwriting recognition for writing in the primary classroom. In People and computers XVIII—Design for life (pp. 135–150).Google Scholar
- Reboli, D. (2007). Introducing a tablet into any classroom: Bringing ideas from a high school into a college classroom. In R. Carlsen, K. McFerrin, J. Price, R. Weber, & D. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education international conference 2007 (pp. 3319–3324). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).Google Scholar
- Sandvik, M., Smørdal, O., & Østerud, S. (2012). Exploring iPads in practitioners’ repertoires for language learning and literacy practices in kindergarten. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 03, 204–221.Google Scholar
- Sheehy, K., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Twining, P., Evans, D., Cook, D., & Jelfs, A. (2005). Tablet PCs in schools: A review of literature and selected projects. Coventry: British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA).Google Scholar
- Uzun, A., & Sadioğlu, Ö. (2013). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin Fatih projesi ve proje kapsamında dağıtılacak tablet bilgisayarlara ilişkin görüşleri [The opinion of the elementary school teachers about FATIH projects and tablets distributed within the project]. In 7th International computer and instructional technologies symposium, Erzurum, TR.Google Scholar
- Van Leeuwen, C. A., & Gabriel, M. A. (2007). Beginning to write with word processing: Integrating writing process and technology in a primary classroom (pp. 420–429). International Reading Association.Google Scholar
- Vural, E., Erdogan H., Oflazer K., & Yanikoglu, B. (2005). An online handwriting recognition system for Turkish. Document Recognition and Retrieval Conference 2005 (pp. 56–65).Google Scholar
- Wais, P., Wolin, A., & Alvarado, C. (2007). Designing a sketch recognition front-end: user perception of interface elements. In Proceedings of the 4th Eurographics workshop on sketch-based interfaces and modeling, 2007 (pp. 99–106).Google Scholar
- Wise, J., Toto, R., & Lim, K. (2006). Introducing tablet PCs: Initial results from the classroom. In Proceedings. Frontiers in education. 36th Annual conference. doi: 10.1109/fie.2006.322657.
- Yanikoglu, B., & Kholmatov, A. (2003). Turkish handwritten text recognition: A case of agglutinative languages. Document Recognition and Retrieval Conference 2003 (pp. 227–233).Google Scholar