The process of designing for learning: understanding university teachers’ design work
- 1.1k Downloads
Interest in how to support the design work of university teachers has led to research and development initiatives that include technology-based design-support tools, online repositories, and technical specifications. Despite these initiatives, remarkably little is known about the design work that university teachers actually do. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that investigated the design processes of 30 teachers from 16 Australian universities. The results show design as a top-down iterative process, beginning with a broad framework to which detail is added through cycles of elaboration. Design extends over the period before, while, and after a unit is taught, demonstrating the dynamic nature of design and highlighting the importance of reflection in teachers’ design practice. We present a descriptive model of the design process, which we relate to conceptualizations of higher education teaching and learning, and compare with the characteristics of general design and instructional design. We also suggest directions for future research and development.
KeywordsEducational design Design process Design support Higher education Teacher design University teaching
- Becher, T., & Trowler, P. (2001). Academic tribes and territories: Intellectual enquiry and the culture of disciplines. Buckingham: SHRE & Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does. Ballmoor: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cross, N. (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. London: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Cross, S., Conole, G., Clark, P., Brasher, A., & Weller, M. (2008). Mapping a landscape of learning design: Identifying key trends in current practice at the Open University. Presented at the 2008 European LAMS Conference, Cadiz, Spain. Retrieved from http://lams2008.lamsfoundation.org/refereed_papers.htm.
- Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (2011). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Do, E. Y.-L., & Gross, M. D. (2001). Thinking with diagrams in architectural design. In A. F. Blackwell (Ed.), Thinking with diagrams (pp. 135–149). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Goldschmidt, G. (1998). Creative architectural design: Reference versus precedence. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 15(3), 258–270.Google Scholar
- Goodyear, P. (2015). Teaching as design. HERDSA Review of Higher Education, 2, 27–50.Google Scholar
- James, R., Bexley, E., Anderson, A., Devlin, M., Garnett, R., Marginson, S., et al. (2012). Participation and equity: A review of the participation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic backgrounds and Indigenous people. Centre for the Study of Higher Education: University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
- Jones, J., Bennett, S., and Lockyer, L. (2011). Applying a learning design to the design of a university unit: A single case study. In T. Bastiaens and M. Ebner (Eds.), Proceedings of world conference on educational multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications (pp. 3340–3349). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.Google Scholar
- Krause, J., Krause, K., & Jennings, C. (2009). The first-year experience in Australian universities: Findings from 1994 to 2009. Centre for the Study of Higher Education: Melbourne University.Google Scholar
- Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a design science: Pedagogical patterns for learning and technology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Laurillard, D. (2013). Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Laurillard, D., Charlton, P., Craft, B., Dimakopoulos, D., Ljubojevic, D., Magoulas, G., et al. (2013). A constructionist learning environment for teachers to model learning designs: Modelling learning designs. Journal of Computer Assisted learning, 29(1), 15–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00458.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Littlejohn, A. (2004). The effectiveness of resources, tools and support services used by practitioners in designing and delivering e-Learning activities: Final report. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/Final%20report%20(final).doc.
- Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar