Does recreational computer use affect high school achievement?
- 1.9k Downloads
Historically, the relationship between student academic achievement and use of computers for fun and video gaming has been described from a multitude of perspectives, from positive, to negative, to neutral. However, recent research has indicated that computer use and video gaming may be positively associated with achievement, yet these studies have focused on small intact and qualitative samples. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between academic achievement in high school and student use of computers for fun and video gaming using the large nationally representative ELS:2002 sample of students in grade 10 in 2002 and an independent effects two-level hierarchical linear model. Our results indicate that both student use of computers for fun and moderate levels of video gaming were positive and significant on cross-sectional reading and mathematics achievement assessments in high school, controlling for multiple covariates of achievement, but were not related to growth in mathematics from grade 10 to grade 12.
KeywordsSecondary education High school Computer attitudes Video games Computer based communication Computer access Achievement Reading Mathematics Television Internet Extracurricular activities Homework
- Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., et al. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 151–173. doi: 10.1037/a0018251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- APA. (2005). Resolution on violence in video games and interactive media: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Attewell, P., & Battle, J. (1999). Home computers and school performance. The Information Society, 15(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
- Boyd, D. (2008). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 119–142). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Collins, A., & Halverson, R. R. (2009). Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America. New York: Teachers College.Google Scholar
- Forte, A., & Bruckman, A. (2006). From Wikipedia to the classroom: Exploring online publication and learning. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on learning sciences (pp. 182–188). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
- Fuchs, T., & Woessmann, L. (2004). Computers and student learning: Bivariate and multivariate evidence on the availability and use of computers at home and at school. CESifo Working Paper 1321. Munich: CESifo.Google Scholar
- Fuchs, T., & Woessmann, L. (2007). What accounts for international differences in student performance? A re-examination using PISA data. Empirical Economics, 32(2), 433–464.Google Scholar
- Gee, J. P. (2004). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Graham, J. W., Cumsille, P. E., & Elvira, E.-F. (2003). Methods for handling missing data. In I. B. Weiner, J. A. Schinka, & W. F. Velicer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Volume 2 Research methods in psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423(6939), 534–537.Google Scholar
- Hox, J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ingles, S. J., Pratt, D. J., Rogers, J. E., Siegel, P. H., Stutts, E. S., & Owings, J. A. (2004). Education longitudinal study of 2002: Base year data file user’s manual. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Ingles, S. J., Pratt, D. J., Wilson, D., Burns, L. J., Currivan, D., Rogers, J. E., et al. (2007). Education longitudinal study of 2002: Base-year to second follow-up data file documentation. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Jackson, L. A. (2008). Adolescents and the internet. In D. Romer & P. Jamieson (Eds.), The changing portrayal of American youth in popular media, Annenberg public policy center at the University of Pennsylvania (pp. 377–410). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Jackson, L. A., von Eye, A., Witt, E. A., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (2011). A longitudinal study of the effects of Internet use and videogame playing on academic performance and the roles of gender, race and income in these relationships. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 228–239. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jenkins, H. (2006). Fans, bloggers, and gamers: Exploring participatory culture. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Klein, S. (2010). Study: Too many video games may sap attention span—Health News—Health.com. Retrieved from http://news.health.com/2010/07/05/video-games-attention-span/.
- Malamud, O., & Pop-Eleches, C. (2008). The effect of computer use on child outcomes. Unpublished Working Paper, The Harris School, The University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. New York: The Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- NCES. (n.d.). Education longitudinal study of 2002 (ELS:2002), from http://www.nces.ed.gov/surveys/els2002/.
- Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Pew. (2000). Tracking online life: How women use the internet to cultivate relationships with family and friends. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2000/Tracking-Online-Life. Accessed Dec 2011.
- Pew. (2005). Digital divisions. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2005/Digital-Divisions.aspx.
- Pew. (2006). Internet evolution, internet penetration and impact. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Internet-Penetration-and-Impact.aspx.
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., Congdon, R., & duToit, M. (2011). HLM 7: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
- Schneider, B., Carnoy, M., Kilpatrick, J., Schmidt, W. H., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Estimating casual effects: Using experimental and observational designs (report from the Governing Board of the American Educational Research Association Grants Program). Washington, D C: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- SPSS. (2010). SPSS Inc. (Version 19.0): IBM SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
- Strayhorn, T. L. (2009). Accessing and analyzing national databases. In T. J. Kowalski & T. J. Lasley (Eds.), Handbook of data-based decision making in education (pp. 105–122). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Van den Bulck, J. (2004). Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep, 27(1), 101–104.Google Scholar
- Wilensky, U. (1993). Connected mathematics: Building concrete relationships with mathematical knowledge. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
- Wing, J. M. (2008). Computational thinking and thinking about computing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 366(1881), 3717–3725.Google Scholar