Cultural Studies of Science Education

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 577–593 | Cite as

Evolution of self-reporting methods for identifying discrete emotions in science classrooms

  • Stephen M. Ritchie
  • Peter Hudson
  • Alberto Bellocchi
  • Senka Henderson
  • Donna King
  • Kenneth Tobin
Original Paper


Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and cogenerative dialogues can be helpful in identifying in-the-moment emotions when used in conjunction with the microanalysis of video recordings of classroom events. We trace the evolution of our use of innovative self-reporting methods through three cases from our research projects, and propose new directions for our ongoing development and application of these methods in both school and university classrooms.


Emotion Self-reporting Methods Classroom research 



Contract grant sponsor: Australian Research Council, Contract grant numbers: DP1210369 and LP110200368.


  1. Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Elliott, R. (2002). Methods in clinical psychology: An introduction for students and practitioners. West Sussex: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellocchi, A., Ritchie, S. M., Tobin, K., King, D., Sandhu, M., & Henderson, S. (2013a, April). The production of emotional climate in pre-service science teacher education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 5–9 April 2013.Google Scholar
  3. Bellocchi, A., Ritchie, S. M., Tobin, K., Sandhu, M., & Sandhu, S. (2013b). Exploring emotional climate in pre-service science teacher education. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 8, 529–552. doi: 10.1007/s11422-013-9526-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borup, J., West, R. E., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Improving online social presence through asynchronous video. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 195–203. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dael, N., Mortillaro, M., & Scherer, K. R. (2012). Emotion expression in body action and posture. Emotion, 12, 1085–1101. doi: 10.1037/a0025737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Darwin, C. (1890). The expression of emotions in man and animals. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  8. Dempsey, N. P. (2010). Stimulated recall interviews in ethnography. Qualitative Sociology, 33, 349–367. doi: 10.1007/s11133-010-9157-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Do, S. L., & Schallert, D. L. (2004). Emotions and classroom talk: Toward a model of the role of affect in students’ experiences of classroom discourse. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 619–634. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ekman, P. (2004). Emotions revealed. Understanding faces and feelings. London: Phoenix.Google Scholar
  11. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978). The facial action coding system: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  13. Gleaves, A., & Walker, C. (2010). Student teachers’ situated emotions: A study of how electronic communication facilitates their expression and shapes their impact on novice teacher development during practice placements. Teacher Development, 14(2), 139–152. doi: 10.1080/13664530.2010.494498.
  14. Gooty, J., Gavin, M., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2009). Emotions research in OB: The challenges that lie ahead. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 833–838. doi: 10.1002/job.619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kanyangara, P., Rime, B., Philippot, P., & Yzerbyt, V. (2007). Collective rituals, emotional climate and intergroup perception: Participation in “Gacaca” tribunals and assimilation of the Rwandan genocide. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 387–403. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00515.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liljestrom, A., Roulston, K., & deMarrais, K. (2007). “There’s no place for feeling like this in the workplace”: Women teachers’ anger in school settings. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 275–291). Oxford: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Linnenbrink, E. A. (2007). The role of affect in student learning: A multidimensional approach considering the interaction of affect, motivation, and engagement. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 107–124). Oxford: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. O’Regan, K. (2003). Emotion and e-learning. Journal of Asynchronous Network Learning, 7(3), 78–92.Google Scholar
  19. Oatley, K. (2009). Communications to self and others: Emotional experience and its skills. Emotion Review, 1(3), 206–213. doi: 10.1177/1754073909103588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pekrun, R., & Schutz, P. A. (2011). Where do we go from here? Implications and future directions for inquiry on emotions in education. In G. D. Phye, P. A. Schutz, & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 313–331). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ritchie, S. M., Tobin, K., Sandhu, M., Sandhu, M., Henderson, S., & Roth, W.-M. (2013). Emotional arousal of beginning physics teachers during extended experimental investigations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50, 137–161. doi: 10.1002/tea.21060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ritchie, S. M., & Tomas, L. (2013). Designing an innovative approach to engage students in learning science. The evolving case of hybridized writing. In L. V. Shavinina (Ed.), The Routledge international handbook of innovative education (pp. 385–395). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & McCauley, C. R. (2008). Disgust. In M. Lewis & J. Havilland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 2200–2262). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Scherer, K. S. (2003). Vocal communication of emotion. A review of research paradigms. Speech Communication, 40, 227–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schutz, P. A., & Pekrun, R. (Eds.). (2007). Emotion in education. Amsterdam: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Stets, J. E. (2010). Future directions in the sociology of emotions. Emotion Review, 2, 265–268. doi: 10.1177/1754073910361975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sutton, R. E. (2007). Teachers’ anger, frustration, and self-regulation. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 259–274). Oxford: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sutton, R. E., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Knight, C. C. (2009). Teachers’ emotion regulation and classroom management. Theory into Practice, 48, 130–137. doi: 10.1080/00405840902776418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tobin, K., & Ritchie, S. M. (2012). Multi-method, multi-theoretic, multi-level research in the learning sciences. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21, 117–129.Google Scholar
  31. Tobin, K., & Roth, W.-M. (2005). Coteaching/cogenerative dialoguing in an urban science teacher preparation program. In W.-M. Roth & K. Tobin (Eds.), Teaching together, learning together (pp. 59–77). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  32. Turner, J. H. (2002). Face to face. Toward a theory of interpersonal behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. White, C. J. (2013). Higher education emotions: A scale development exercise. Higher Education Research & Development, 32, 287–299. doi: 10.1080/07294360.2012.674496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wosnitza, M., & Volet, S. (2005). Origin, direction and impact of emotions in social online learning. Learning and Instruction, 15, 449–464. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zembylas, M. (2002). Constructing genealogies of teachers’ emotions in science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39, 79–103. doi: 10.1002/tea.10010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zembylas, M. (2008). Adult learners’ emotions in online learning. Distance Education, 29(1), 71–87. doi: 10.1080/01587010802004852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen M. Ritchie
    • 1
  • Peter Hudson
    • 2
  • Alberto Bellocchi
    • 2
  • Senka Henderson
    • 2
  • Donna King
    • 2
  • Kenneth Tobin
    • 3
  1. 1.Murdoch UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Queensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.City University of New YorkNew York CityUSA

Personalised recommendations