Advertisement

HSS Journal ®

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 328–332 | Cite as

Scapular Body Fracture in the Athlete: A Systematic Review

  • Mithun NeralEmail author
  • Derrick M. Knapik
  • Robert J. Wetzel
  • Michael J. Salata
  • James E. Voos
Review Article
  • 186 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Scapular body fractures generally occur as a result of high-energy, direct trauma to the shoulder sustained in automobile accidents. While such mechanisms have been well described, little is known about scapular body fractures sustained during sporting activities.

Questions/Purposes

We sought to systematically review the literature on scapular body fracture sustained during sporting activity, recording rates and mechanisms of injury, management strategies, and return-to-sport times.

Methods

Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we performed a systematic review of studies conducted between 1985 and 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies examining scapular body fractures sustained during sporting activity, fracture management, and patient outcomes. Exclusion criteria were studies on non-sporting-related fractures and those not reporting fracture management or patient outcomes.

Results

Nine studies encompassing ten cases of scapular body fracture sustained during sporting activity were identified, with acute trauma responsible for 70% of fractures. No patient sustained any associated injuries. Fractures were treated conservatively in 90% of cases, with no reported complications. Mean overall time to return to sport was 2.5 months, while no significant difference in return to sport was appreciated in athletes with acute versus fatigue fractures.

Conclusion

Scapular body fractures in athletes occur primarily from muscle contraction against a resisted force in the upper extremity during contact sports. Unlike non-sporting fractures, these fractures usually involve low-energy mechanisms without associated injury and conservative treatment is usually successful.

Keywords

scapula fracture athlete treatment outcomes scapular body management 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mithun Neral, MD, Derrick M. Knapik, MD, and Robert J. Wetzel, MD, declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Michael J. Salata, MD, reports being a paid consultant for Smith and Nephew, Stryker, and Linvatec, outside the current submission. James E. Voos, MD, reports being a paid consultant for Arthrex, outside the current submission.

Human/Animal Rights

N/A

Informed Consent

N/A

Required Author Forms

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the online version of this article.

Supplementary material

11420_2018_9624_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1224 kb)
11420_2018_9624_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 2 (PDF 1.19 MB)
11420_2018_9624_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 3 (PDF 1224 kb)
11420_2018_9624_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 4 (PDF 1224 kb)
11420_2018_9624_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 5 (PDF 1224 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ada JR, Miller ME. Scapular fractures: analysis of 113 cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;(269):174–180.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banerjee AK, Field S. An unusual scapular fracture caused by a water skiing accident. Br J Radiol. 1985;58(689):465–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brindle TJ, Coen M. Scapular avulsion fracture of the high school wrestler. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;27(6):444–447.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown MA, Sikka RS, Guanche CA, Fischer DA. Bilateral fractures of the scapula in a professional football player. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(1):237–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Butters KP. The scapula. In: Rockwood CA Jr., Matsen FA II, eds. The Shoulder. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990:335–366.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cain TE, Hamilton WP. Scapular fractures in professional football players. Am J Sports Med. 1992;20(2):363–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Villiers RV, Pritchard M, De Beer J, Koenig J. Scapular stress fracture in a professional cricketer and a review of the literature. S Afr Med J. 2005;95(5):312–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goss TP. Scapular fractures and dislocations: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1995;3(1):22–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gottschalk HP, Browne RH, Starr AJ. Shoulder girdle: patterns of trauma and associated injuries. J Orthop Trauma. 2011;25(5):266–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hardegger FH, Simpson LA, Weber BG. The operative treatment of scapular fractures. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1984;66(5):725–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herickhoff PK, Keyurapan E, Fayad LM, Silberstein CE, McFarland EG. Scapular stress fracture in a professional baseball player: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(7):1193–1196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herscovici D, Sanders R, DiPasquale T, Gregory P. Injuries of the shoulder girdle. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995;(318):54–60.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heyse-Moore GH, Stoker DJ. Avulsion fractures of the scapula. Skelet Radiol. 1982;9(1):27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Imatani RJ. Fractures of the scapula: a review of 53 fractures. J Trauma. 1975;15(6):473–478.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knapik DM, Patel SH, Wetzel RJ, Voos JE. Prevalence and management of coracoid fracture sustained during sporting activities and time to return to sport: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(3):753–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(10):e1–e34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Memisoglu S, Yilmaz B, Aktas E, Komur B. Isolated scapula fracture: Ice hockey player without trauma. Ann Med Surg. 2015;4(3):235–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miller ME, Ada JR. Fractures of the scapula, clavicle, and glenoid. In: Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM, et al., eds. Skeletal Trauma: Fractures, Dislocations, Ligamentous Injuries. Philadelphia: WB Saunders: 1992;1291–1310.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mugikura S, Hiryama T, Tada H, Takemitsu Y. Avulsion fracture of the scapular spine: a case report. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1993;2(1):39–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neer CS II, Rockwood CA Jr. Fractures and dislocations of the shoulder. In: Rochwood CA Jr., Green DP, eds. Fractures in Adults, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1984:713–721.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Norris TR. Fractures and dislocations of the glenohumeral complex. In: Chapman MW, Madison M, eds. Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1988:203–220.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rowe CR. Fractures of the scapula. Surg Clin North Am. 1963;43:1565–1571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ruedi T, Chapman MW. Fractures of the scapula and clavicle. In: Chapman MW, Madison M, eds. Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1988:197–202.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thompson DA, Flynn TC, Miller PW, Fischer RP. The significance of scapular fractures. J Trauma. 1985;25(10):974–977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Veluvolu P, Kohn HS, Guten GN, et al. Unusual stress fracture of the scapula in a jogger. Clin Nucl Med. 1987;13(7):531–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wyrsch RB, Spindler KP, Stricker PR. Scapula fracture in a professional boxer. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1995;4(5):395–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Hospital for Special Surgery 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Hospitals Cleveland Medical CenterCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  2. 2.University Hospitals Sports Medicine InstituteUniversity Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations