Nonanemic Patients Do Not Benefit from Autologous Blood Donation Before Total Hip Replacement
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To avoid the potential risks of allogeneic transfusion during total hip arthroplasty (THA), the use of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) has been utilized. We performed a retrospective chart review of 283 patients undergoing THA that either donated 1 U of autologous blood (188 patients) or did not donate autologous blood before surgery (95 patients) in order to investigate the difference in postoperative transfusion rate (autologous and allogeneic), the incidence of allogeneic transfusion, and the difference in cost of each protocol. In addition, the study compared transfusion rates in patients with and without preoperative anemia (hemoglobin (Hb) ≤ 12.5 g/dL). At 0.75 transfusions per patient versus 0.22 transfusions per patient, the PABD patients had a significantly higher overall transfusion rate. PABD significantly reduced the need for allogeneic blood in anemic patients (Hb ≤ 12.5 g/dL) from 52.6% to 11.8%. PABD did not have the same affect in nonanemic patients (allogeneic transfusion rate 5.7% versus 4.0%). The study demonstrated that nonanemic patients undergoing THA do not benefit from PABD, but it is effective for anemic patients.