Advertisement

Forensic Toxicology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 45–53 | Cite as

Postmortem distribution of AB-CHMINACA, 5-fluoro-AMB, and diphenidine in body fluids and solid tissues in a fatal poisoning case: usefulness of adipose tissue for detection of the drugs in unchanged forms

  • Koutaro Hasegawa
  • Amin Wurita
  • Kayoko Minakata
  • Kunio Gonmori
  • Hideki Nozawa
  • Itaru Yamagishi
  • Kanako Watanabe
  • Osamu Suzuki
Original Article

Abstract

We encountered an autopsy case in which the cause of death was judged as poisoning by multiple drugs, including AB-CHMINACA, 5-fluoro-AMB, and diphenidine. The deceased was a 30-year-old man. The postmortem interval to autopsy was estimated to be 3.5 days. Femoral vein blood, right heart blood, left heart blood, urine, and eight solid tissues including adipose tissue were collected and frozen until analysis. Extraction of the three drugs, and internal standards phencyclidine and 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA was performed by a modified QuEChERS method, followed by analysis by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Because this study dealt with various kinds of human matrices, we used the standard addition method to overcome the matrix effects. Quantitation of all three compounds was only achieved for the adipose tissue, whereas the levels of 5-fluoro-AMB were below the lower limit of quantitation (about 1 ng/g or ml) in all other samples. AB-CHMINACA was quantitated for all solid tissues, but not for all body fluid specimens. Diphenidine showed high concentrations in all specimens; it was highest in the adipose tissue (11,100 ± 1,120 ng/g), an order of magnitude lower in other solid tissue specimens, and two orders of magnitude lower in body fluid samples. The results suggest that adipose tissue is the best specimen for detection of lipophilic drugs, such as AB-CHMINACA, 5-fluoro-AMB, and diphenidine, in their unchanged forms. In this poisoning case, diphenidine appeared to have played the major role in the cause of death, because the concentrations of diphenidine were much higher than those of the synthetic cannabinoids in all specimens tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document the presence of AB-CHMINACA, 5-fluoro-AMB, and diphenidine in actual postmortem specimens in a fatal poisoning case.

Keywords

AB-CHMINACA 5-Fluoro-AMB Diphenidine Synthetic cannabinoid Adipose tissue Postmortem distribution 

Notes

Conflict of interest

There are no financial or other relations that could lead to a conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Zuba D, Byrska B (2013) Analysis of the prevalence and coexistence of synthetic cannabinoids in “herbal high” products in Poland. Forensic Toxicol 31:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kikura-Hanajiri R, Uchiyama N, Kawamura M, Goda Y (2013) Changes in the prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinone derivatives in Japan until early 2012. Forensic Toxicol 31:44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chung H, Choi H, Heo S, Kim S, Lee J (2014) Synthetic cannabinoids abused in South Korea: drug identifications by the National Forensic Service from 2009 to June 2013. Forensic Toxicol 32:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uchiyama N, Shimokawa Y, Matsuda S, Kawamura M, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y (2014) Two new synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201 benzimidazole analog (FUBIMINA) and (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methanone (MEPIRAPIM), and three phenethylamine derivatives, 25H-NBOMe 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl analog, 25B-NBOMe, and 2C-N-NBOMe, identified in illegal products. Forensic Toxicol 32:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Uchiyama N, Shimokawa Y, Kawamura M, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Hakamatsuka T (2014) Chemical analysis of a benzofuran derivative, 2-(2-ethylaminopropyl)benzofuran (2-EAPB), eight synthetic cannabinoids, five cathinone derivatives, and five other designer drugs newly detected in illegal products. Forensic Toxicol 32:266–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Namera A, Urabe S, Saito T, Torikoshi-Hatano A, Shiraishi H, Arima Y, Nagao M (2013) A fatal case of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone poisoning: coexistence of α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone and α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone in blood and/or hair. Forensic Toxicol 31:338–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Namera A, Konuma K, Kawamura M, Saito T, Nakamoto A, Yahata M, Ohta S, Miyazaki S, Shiraishi H, Nagao M (2014) Time-course profile of urinary excretion of intravenously administered α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone in a human. Forensic Toxicol 32:68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasegawa K, Suzuki O, Wurita A, Minakata K, Yamagishi I, Nozawa H, Gonmori K, Watanabe K (2014) Postmortem distribution of α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and its metabolite in body fluids and solid tissues in a fatal poisoning case measured by LC–MS–MS with the standard addition method. Forensic Toxicol 32:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hasegawa K, Wurita A, Minakata K, Gonmori K, Nozawa H, Yamagishi I, Suzuki O, Watanabe K (2014) Identification and quantitation of a new cathinone designer drug PV9 in an “aroma liquid” product, antemortem whole blood and urine specimens, and a postmortem whole blood specimen in a fatal poisoning case. Forensic Toxicol 32:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wurita A, Hasegawa K, Minakata K, Watanabe K, Suzuki O (2014) A large amount of new designer drug diphenidine coexisting with a synthetic cannabinoid 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA found in a dubious herbal product. Forensic Toxicol 32:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kudo K, Ishida T, Hikiji W, Hayashida M, Uekusa K, Usumoto Y, Tsuji A, Ikeda N (2009) Construction of calibration-locking databases for rapid and reliable drug screening by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Forensic Toxicol 27:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cayman Chemical (2014) Cayman spectral library. https://www.caymanchem.com/app/template/SpectralLibrary.vm. Accessed June 2014
  13. 13.
    Usui K, Hashiyada M, Hayashizaki Y, Igari Y, Hosoya T, Sakai J, Funayama M (2014) Application of modified QuEChERS method to liver samples for forensic toxicological analysis. Forensic Toxicol 32:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bonilla E (1978) Flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of manganese in rat brain and other tissues. Clin Chem 24:471–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wurita A, Suzuki O, Hasegawa K, Gonmori K, Minakata K, Yamagishi I, Nozawa H, Watanabe K (2013) Sensitive determination of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and diethylene glycol in human whole blood by isotope dilution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the presence of appreciable amounts of the glycols in blood of healthy subjects. Forensic Toxicol 31:272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wurita A, Hasegawa K, Minakata K, Gonmori K, Nozawa H, Yamagishi I, Suzuki O, Watanabe K (2014) Postmortem distribution of α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver. Legal Med 16:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saito T, Namera A, Miura N, Ohta S, Miyazaki S, Osawa M, Inokuchi S (2013) A fatal case of MAM-2201 poisoning. Forensic Toxicol 31:333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koutaro Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Amin Wurita
    • 1
  • Kayoko Minakata
    • 1
  • Kunio Gonmori
    • 1
  • Hideki Nozawa
    • 1
  • Itaru Yamagishi
    • 1
  • Kanako Watanabe
    • 1
  • Osamu Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Legal MedicineHamamatsu University School of MedicineHamamatsuJapan

Personalised recommendations