Forensic Toxicology

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 73–84 | Cite as

Recently abused β-keto derivatives of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylalkylamines: a review of their metabolisms and toxicological analysis

  • Kei ZaitsuEmail author
  • Munehiro Katagi
  • Michiaki Tatsuno
  • Takako Sato
  • Hitoshi Tsuchihashi
  • Koichi Suzuki
Review Article


β-Keto derivatives of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylalkylamines (bk-MDPAs), especially 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (methylone), 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)butan-1-one (bk-MBDB), and 2-ethylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propan-1-one (bk-MDEA), are abused as substitutes for 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylalkylamines in some countries, causing increased social problems. With the widespread abuse of bk-MDPAs, the analysis of bk-MDPAs and their metabolites in human specimens is quite important in forensic and clinical toxicology. In this review, the metabolisms of bk-MDPAs and simultaneous analytical methods for bk-MDPAs and their metabolites by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry are presented.


β-Keto-3,4-methylenedioxyphenylalkylamines bk-MDPAs Methylone bk-MBDB bk-MDEA Designer drug 


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Copyright information

© Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kei Zaitsu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Munehiro Katagi
    • 1
  • Michiaki Tatsuno
    • 1
  • Takako Sato
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Tsuchihashi
    • 2
  • Koichi Suzuki
    • 2
  1. 1.Forensic Science LaboratoryOsaka Prefectural Police HeadquartersOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Legal MedicineOsaka Medical CollegeTakatsukiJapan

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