Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 114–123 | Cite as

Cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus L. suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells

  • Mayumi Hayata
  • Norihisa Watanabe
  • Noriaki Kamio
  • Muneaki Tamura
  • Keiko Nodomi
  • Kiyotaka Tanaka
  • Arunasiri Iddamalgoda
  • Hiromasa Tsuda
  • Yorimasa Ogata
  • Shuichi Sato
  • Kouichiro Ueda
  • Kenichi ImaiEmail author
Original Paper


Periodontal diseases are a major public health problem affecting over half of the adult population worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines that promote inflammatory bone destruction. Mounting evidence supports that periodontal diseases are involved in the onset and progression of several systemic diseases, such as aspiration pneumonia and diabetes. Although treatment of periodontal diseases by removing the periodontopathic bacteria by brushing is a standard practice, it has limitations and is not effective in all cases. Therefore, a new method to replace or complement brushing is needed for the treatment of periodontal diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract from Cynara scolymus L. and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated by LPS and the potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects on RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). We found that cynaropicrin inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA and protein synthesis in LPS-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner. P. gingivalis LPS-induced degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 were also suppressed by cynaropicrin, as was LPS-stimulated NF-κB transactivation. Thus, cynaropicrin’s inhibition of P. gingivalis LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-6 expression may be due to the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, we showed that cynaropicrin dramatically reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. These results suggest that cynaropicrin may be useful for preventing periodontal diseases and could prove valuable in the development of more effective preventative approaches for periodontal diseases.


Cynaropicrin Periodontal diseases Inflammatory cytokine Human gingival fibroblasts Osteoclast differentiation 



This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI, the Dental Research Center, Nihon University School of Dentistry, and the Nihon University Multidisciplinary Research Grant for 2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors confirm that there are no conflicts of interests.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayumi Hayata
    • 1
    • 2
  • Norihisa Watanabe
    • 2
    • 3
  • Noriaki Kamio
    • 2
  • Muneaki Tamura
    • 2
  • Keiko Nodomi
    • 2
  • Kiyotaka Tanaka
    • 4
  • Arunasiri Iddamalgoda
    • 4
  • Hiromasa Tsuda
    • 5
  • Yorimasa Ogata
    • 6
  • Shuichi Sato
    • 3
  • Kouichiro Ueda
    • 1
  • Kenichi Imai
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Dysphagia RehabilitationNihon University School of DentistryTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyNihon University School of DentistryTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of PeriodontologyNihon University School of DentistryTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Research and DevelopmentIchimaru Pharcos Co. LtdGifuJapan
  5. 5.Department of BiochemistryNihon University School of DentistryTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of PeriodontologyNihon University School of Dentistry at MatsudoMatsudoJapan

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