Structure and hemolytic activity relationships of triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins
We evaluated the hemolytic activity of 41 commercially available triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins derived from three types of structural skeletons. Structure–activity relationships were established by comparing the structural characteristics of both the aglycone and sugar moieties among the tested compounds. The majority of oleanane-type sapogenins had stronger hemolytic effects than those of the ursane and dammarane types. The presence of polar regions on sapogenins, such as a carboxyl (COOH) at position 28, an α-hydroxyl (α-OH) at position 16, and/or a β-hydroxyl (β-OH) at position 2, significantly enhanced hemolysis. Meanwhile, the introduction of an α-OH at position 2 or a methyl hydroxyl (CH2OH) at positions 23 or 24 was closely associated with reduced activity. Our findings suggest that not only the complexity of sugar moieties but also the types and stereochemical configurations of functional groups at different positions, as well as the skeleton types, are important structural features affecting hemolytic potential. Our results provide a baseline in terms of the toxicity of saponins and sapogenins to erythrocytes, which holds promise for drug development.
KeywordsHemolytic activity Structure–activity relationships Hemolytic time course Triterpene saponins and sapogenins
This study was partially supported by a Frontier Research Base for Global Young Researchers, Osaka University, from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (MEXT) to E.O.F.; and the Monbukagakusho Scholarship to N.N.Q.V.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial or commercial conflicts of interest.
- 1.Soltani M, Parivar K, Baharara J, Kerachian MA, Asili J (2014) Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber. Rep Biochem Mol Biol 3:1–8Google Scholar
- 2.Mukherjee A, Rajasekaran C (2010) In-vitro hemolytic activity of Allium stracheyi Baker. J Pharm Res 3:1160–1162Google Scholar
- 3.Amini E, Nabiuni M, Baharara J, Parivar K, Asili J (2014) Hemolytic and cytotoxic effects of saponin like compounds isolated from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus). J Coast Life Med 2:762–768Google Scholar
- 4.Mayer AM, Rodríguez AD, Berlinck RG, Fusetani N (2011) Marine pharmacology in 2007-8: marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 153:191–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Kumar G, Karthik L, Bhaskara Rao KV (2011) Haemolytic activity of Indian medicinal plants toward human erythrocytes: an in vitro study. Elixir Appl Bot 40:5534–5537Google Scholar