Gastrodin reversed the traumatic stress-induced depressed-like symptoms in rats
- 456 Downloads
Exposure to severe stress can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in at-risk individuals. Gastrodin (GAS), a primary constituent of an Oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to effectively treat various mood disorders. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether GAS would ameliorate stress-associated depression-like behaviors in a rat model of single prolonged stress (SPS)-induced PTSD. Following the SPS procedure, rats received intraperitoneal administration of GAS (20, 50, or 100 mg/kg) once daily for 2 weeks. Subsequently, the rats performed the forced swimming test, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the hippocampus were measured. Daily GAS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviors and restored SPS-induced increases in hippocampal NE concentrations as well as tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the locus coeruleus. Furthermore, the administration of GAS attenuated SPS-induced decreases in the hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and the hippocampal mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These findings indicate that GAS possesses antidepressant effects in the PTSD and may be an effective herbal preparation for the treatment of PTSD.
KeywordsPost-traumatic stress disorder Single prolonged stress Depression Norepinephrine Gastrodin
This research was supported by a Grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Korean government (MEST) (2013R1A1A2063051).
- 10.Benarroch LC, Rodriguez A, Miledi R, Garcia-Alcocer G (2012) Serotonin receptors in hippocampus. Sci World J 2012:823493Google Scholar
- 12.Peng Z, Wang H, Zhang R, Chen Y, Xue F, Nie H, Chen Y, Wu D, Wang Y, Wang H, Tan Q (2013) Gastrodin ameliorates anxiety-like behaviors and inhibits IL-1beta level and p38 MAPK phosphorylation of hippocampus in the rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Physiol Res 62:537–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Iwamoto Y, Morinobu S, Takahashi T, Yamawaki S (2007) Single prolonged stress increases contextual freezing and the expression of glycine transporter 1 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mRNA in the hippocampus of rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:642–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Dai JN, Zong Y, Zhong LM, Li YM, Zhang W, Bian LG, Ai QL, Liu YD, Sun J, Lu D (2011) Gastrodin inhibits expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured LPS-stimulated microglia via MAPK pathways. PLoS One 6:e21891CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Paxinos G, Watson C (1986) The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates, 3rd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 54–85Google Scholar
- 36.Kohda K, Harada K, Kato K, Hoshino A, Motohashi J, Yamaji T, Morinobu S, Matsuoka N, Kato N (2007) Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model. Neuroscience 148:22–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Geracioti TD Jr, Baker DG, Kasckow JW, Strawn JR, Jeffrey Mulchahey J, Dashevsky BA, Horn PS, Ekhator NN (2008) Effects of trauma-related audiovisual stimulation on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:416–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Zhang W, Perry KW, Wong DT, Potts BD, Bao J, Tollefson GD, Bymaster FP (2000) Synergistic effects of olanzapine and other antipsychotic agents in combination with fluoxetine on norepinephrine and dopamine release in rat prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 23:250–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 47.Barnea A, Roberts J (2010) Induction of functional and morphological expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cortical cultures by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): evidence for a requirement for extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent and ERK-independent mechanisms. Brain Res 919:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar