Lactone-rich fraction from Vernonia blumeoides: antitrypanosomal activity and alleviation of the parasite-induced anemia and organ damage
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The anti-Trypanosoma brucei brucei activity in vitro and in vivo of a lactone-rich fraction of Vernonia blumeoides leaves (VBLF) and its potential in alleviating trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage were investigated. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of VBLF revealed the presence of a number of lactone-containing compounds. In an in vitro study, VBLF showed concentration-dependent activity and was further used to treat T. brucei brucei-infected rats. The VBLF treatments, especially at 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), significantly (P < 0.05) kept the parasites reduced during the entire experimental period compared with the infected untreated group. At the end of the experiment, the trypanosome-induced anemia and hepatic damage were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated in all the VBLF treatment groups, but renal damage was only prevented in the 200 and 300 mg/kg BW treatment groups. Furthermore, the trypanosome-induced increase in the relative weights of liver, spleen and kidney were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated by the 300 mg/kg BW VBLF treatment. It was concluded that orally administered VBLF, especially at 300 mg/kg BW, possessed antitrypanosomal activity and could alleviate parasite-induced anemia and organ damage.
KeywordsAnemia Antitrypanosomal activity Organ damage Lactones Vernoniablumeoides
The authors are grateful to Dr. I.D. Jatau and Mr Neal Broomhead for their technical assistance.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
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