Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 223–226 | Cite as

Antidermatophyte and antimelanogenesis compound from Eleutherine americana grown in Indonesia

  • Irawan Wijaya Kusuma
  • Enos Tangke ArungEmail author
  • Enih Rosamah
  • Sri Purwatiningsih
  • Harlinda Kuspradini
  • Syafrizal
  • Juli Astuti
  • Yong-Ung Kim
  • Kuniyoshi Shimizu


An active compound from the bulb of Eleutherine americana L. Merr. (Iridaceae) collected from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, was tested for its antidermatophyte and antimelanogenesis activity. Antifungal assay-directed fractionation of the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of the bulb of E. americana led to the isolation of 1 as an active compound. The compound was identified as the naphthoquinone eleutherin by EI-MS and 1H-, 13C-, and two-dimensional NMR analyses. Antidermatophyte assay of 1 at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/disk and myconazole, a commercial antidermatophyte, at 10 μg/disk displayed 7, 8, 13, 16, 17, and 14 mm of inhibition zone against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, respectively. In a melanin formation inhibition assay, compound 1 displayed potent antimelanogenesis activity at 5 ppm with low toxicity compared with arbutin, a commercial skin-whitening agent. The results showed the high potential of 1, an active compound from E. americana, to be applied as an antidermatophyte and antimelanogenesis agent.


Antidermatophyte Antimelanogenesis Bawang tiwai Eleutherine americana 



This study was supported by a Competitive Research Grant (PHB 2009) program from the Directorate General of Higher Education, Indonesian Ministry of National Education. PT. Kaltim Methanol Industri, Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, is gratefully acknowledged for providing some chemicals.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irawan Wijaya Kusuma
    • 1
  • Enos Tangke Arung
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Enih Rosamah
    • 1
  • Sri Purwatiningsih
    • 2
  • Harlinda Kuspradini
    • 1
  • Syafrizal
    • 3
  • Juli Astuti
    • 1
  • Yong-Ung Kim
    • 5
  • Kuniyoshi Shimizu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products Technology, Faculty of ForestryMulawarman UniversitySamarindaIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Herbal Medicine, Faculty of MedicineMulawarman UniversitySamarindaIndonesia
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural SciencesMulawarman UniversitySamarindaIndonesia
  4. 4.Department of Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Herbal Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Herbal Bio-IndustryDaegu Haany UniversityDaeguSouth Korea

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