Metabolism and pharmacokinetics in rats of ganoderiol F, a highly cytotoxic and antitumor triterpene from Ganoderma lucidum
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- Zhang, Q., Zuo, F., Nakamura, N. et al. J Nat Med (2009) 63: 304. doi:10.1007/s11418-009-0337-5
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The metabolism of ganoderiol F (GF), a cytotoxic and antitumor triterpene from Ganoderma lucidum, by intestinal bacteria and its pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). GF was converted to ganodermatriol by anaerobic incubation with bacterial mixtures from rats and humans. This metabolite was detected in rat feces, but not in plasma and urine, after oral administration of GF. The fate of GF after oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration to rats was examined in pharmacokinetics studies. Plasma samples pretreated by solid-phase extraction were quantified by HPLC/MS/MS over a GF concentration range of 1.25–100 ng/ml (S/N = 5). The intra- and interday precision (CV%) was below 8% and accuracy was within the range of 95.9–103.6% for all samples. The range of recovery ratios was 89.2–98.2%. After the administration of GF at 0.5 mg/kg i.v., the plasma concentrations of GF quickly declined and the elimination half-life values (t1/2α and t1/2β) were about 2.4 and 34.8 min. On the other hand, the elimination half-life values (t1/2α) after p.o. administration of GF at doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg were 14.4 and 143.3 min for the former, and 18.6 and 114.6 min for the latter. The AUC0–t value was 11.17 (ng/ml) h at a GF dose of 0.5 mg/kg i.v., but 49.4 and 111.6 (ng/ml) h at GF doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively, indicating that the AUC0–t value is proportional to the administered oral doses. The estimated absolute bioavailability of GF in rats was F = 0.105.