Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 261–266 | Cite as

Influence of composition upon the variety of tastes in Cinnamomi Cortex

Original Paper

Abstract

Cinnamomi Cortex, which is normally referred to as cinnamon, is a very popular spice as well as an important natural medicine. High-quality cinnamon is traditionally believed to taste sweet and be strongly pungent without astringency. Cinnamomi Cortex with larger amounts of cinnamaldehyde was sweeter in taste comparisons. The contents of tannins and sugars in cinnamon powder had little effect on the taste. Evaluations of the sweetness and pungency of cinnamaldehyde solutions (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/ml) were performed using volunteers. The scores for sweetness increased significantly from 0.10 to 0.50 mg/ml (P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U-test), but there was no significant difference above 0.75 mg/ml. The concentration threshold for the sweet taste of cinnamaldehyde appeared to be less than 0.75 mg/ml, and the more concentrated solutions gave excessive pungency. Therefore, two contrastive tastes of Cinnamomi Cortex, sweet and pungent, were both attributed to cinnamaldehyde. Consequently, its taste, one of its indices of quality, seems to vary mainly according to the content of cinnamaldehyde.

Keywords

Cinnamomi Cortex Cinnamaldehyde Sweetness Pungency Taste evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Harada M, Ozaki Y (1972) Pharmacological studies on Chinese cinnamon. I. Central effects of cinnamaldehyde. Yakugaku Zasshi 92(2):135–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huss U, Ringbom T, Perera P, Bohlin L, Vasänge M (2002) Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. J Nat Prod 65:1517–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alzoreky NS, Nakahara K (2003) Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol 80:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arctander S (1969) Perfume and flavor chemicals. Monograph 619, vol 1. S Arctander, Montclair, NJGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hussain RA, Kim J, Hu TW, Pezzuto JM, Soejarto DD, Kinghorn AD (1986) Isolation of a highly sweet constituent from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves. Planta Med 52:403–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawamitsu Y, Tokumaru K (2001) Heisei 13 nendo naikaku-fu itaku chosa kenkyu “mangrove ni kansuru chosa kenkyu houkokusho”, pp 193–202Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salles C, Nicklaus S, Septier C (2003) Determination and gustatory properties of taste-active compounds in tomato juice. Food Chem 81:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ooi LSM, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EYL, Ooi VEC (2006) Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume. Am J Chin Med 34(3):511–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoneda Y, Kato S (1994) Relationship between taste and concentration of caffeine and tannin in tea infusion. Sci Cook 27(1):31–38Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nishioka I (1992) Chemical constituents of cassia bark. J Tradit Sino-Japanese Med 13:83–89Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anetai M, Aoyagi M, Havashi T, Hatakeyama Y (2000) Preparation and chemical evaluation of Angelicae Radix produced in Hokkaido (Part III). Time course study of dilute ethanol-soluble extract and sucrose contents. Rep Hokkaido Inst Public Health 50:6–10Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anetai M, Masuda T, Takasugi M (1997) Preparation and chemical evaluation of Glehnia Root prepared from Glehnia littoralis cultivated in Tottori prefecture. Nat Med 51(5):442–446Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anetai M, Aoyagi M, Shibata T, Iida O, Hatakeyama Y (1998) Preparation and chemical evaluation of Astragali Radix produced in Hokkaido. Nat Med 52(1):10–13Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anetai M, Kanetoshi A, Hayashi T, Aoyagi M, Iida O, Hatakeyama Y (1996) Preparation and chemical evaluation of Saussureae Radix produced in Hokkaido. Nat Med 50(4):284–288Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ito M, Shimada Y, Kiuchi F, Qui TK, Honda G (2004) Field survey of cinnamon in Viet Nam. Nat Med 58(4):168–176Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kondou T, Kawamura K, Noro Y, Tanaka T, Inoue K (1999) Physical and chemical features of Vietnamese and Chinese cinnamon barks on the market. Nat Med 53(4):178–182Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heide RT (1972) Qualitative analysis of the essential oil of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia Blume). J Agric Food Chem 20(4):747–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sagara K, Oshima T, Yoshida T, Tong YY, Zhang G, Chen YH (1987) Determination of Cinnamomi Cortex by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 409:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    He ZD, Qiao CF, Han QB, Cheng CL, Xu HX, Jiang RW, But PPH, Shaw PC (2005) Authentication and quantitative analysis on the chemical profile of cassia bark (Cortex Cinnamomi) by high-pressure liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 53:2424–2428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Perucka I, Oleszek W (2000) Extraction and determination of capsaicinoids in fruit of hot pepper Capsicum annuum L. by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem 71:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Noyer I, Fayet B, Pouliquen-Sonaglia I, Guerere M, Lesgard J (1999) Quantitative analysis of pungent principles of pepper oleoresins: comparative study of three analytical methods. Analusis 27:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sugai E, Morimitsu Y, Kubota K (2005) Quantitative analysis of sanshool compounds in Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC.) and their pungent characteristics. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69(10):1958–1962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bartley JP, Jacobs AL (2000) Effects of drying on flavour compounds in Australian-grown ginger (Zingiber ofcinale). J Sci Food Agric 80:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miyazawa M, Tamura N (2007) Components of the essential oil from sprouts of Polygonum hydropiper L. (‘Benitade’). Flavour Fragr J 22:188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Depree JA, Howard TM, Savage GP (1998) Flavour and pharmaceutical properties of the volatile sulphur compounds of Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). Food Res Int 31(5):329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamato M, Kitamura T, Hashigaki K, Kuwano Y, Yoshida N, Koyama T (1972) Syntheses of biologically active isocoumarins. I. Chemical structure and sweet taste of 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins. Yakugaku Zasshi 92:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lindemann B (1996) Taste reception. Physiol Rev 76(3):719–766Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D (1997) The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 389:816–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ohkubo T, Shibata M (1997) The selective capsaicin antagonist capsazepine abolishes the antinociceptive action of eugenol and guaiacol. J Dent Res 76(4):848–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bandell M, Story GM, Hwang SW, Viswanath V, Eid SR, Petrus MJ, Earley TJ, Patapoutian A (2004) Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin. Neuron 41:849–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Friedman M, Kozukue N, Harden LA (2000) Cinnamaldehyde content in foods determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 48:5702–5709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clifford MN, Hole M (1977) The naturally occurring cinnamaldehydes. Process Biochem 12:5–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations