Journal of Natural Medicines

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 117–121 | Cite as

Authentication of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore (Fang Ji) and differentiation of its common adulterants using microscopy and HPLC analysis

  • Vaishali C. JoshiEmail author
  • Bharathi Avula
  • Ikhlas A. Khan


Stephania tetrandra S. Moore (Hang Fang Ji) is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diuretic, an antiphlogistic, and an antirheumatic. The name “fang ji” is applied to at least four different genera of plants, including Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chow and S. M. Hwang, Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC., Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and Sinomenium acutum Rehder and E. H. Wilson. Due to similarity in the use of their common names, Stephania tetrandra S. Moore is often confused with Aristolochia fangchi Y. C. Wu ex L. D. Chow and S. M. Hwang, which has potentially dangerous consequences. To aid rapid and easy differentiation between the roots of these four species, so as to avoid possible contamination, detailed macroscopic and microscopic observations were made using stereo-and light-microscopy. The powdered samples were further analyzed using HPLC.


Authentication Stephania tetrandra Aristolochia fangchi Cocculus orbiculatus Sinomenium acutum Microscopy and HPLC 



This work was funded in part by the Food and Drug Administration contract “Botanical Dietary Supplements: Science-Base for Authentication”, FD-U-002071.01. We are also thankful to Beijing Yuke Botanical Development Co. Ltd. China and Division of Chinese Materia Medica for providing authenticated samples and to Roy Upton for his comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaishali C. Joshi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bharathi Avula
    • 1
  • Ikhlas A. Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, School of PharmacyUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacognosy, School of PharmacyUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA

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