Asian Journal of Criminology

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 125–142 | Cite as

Indonesian Men's Contrasting Perceptions of How to Deal with Local Violence

  • Argyo Demartoto
  • Pam NilanEmail author
  • Alex Broom
  • John Germov


This paper reports on data from a 2009–2010 project on masculinity and violence, part of which was conducted in Indonesia. The data here come from semi-structured interviews with 86 men in five cities, with minor reference to survey findings. Using a Foucauldian interpretive framework, we focus primarily on how these Indonesian men view police intervention in comparison to resolving the problem of violence within their community through mediation. The issue here is that while community mediation approaches are regarded positively, at present, it only seems to be religious leaders who are trusted to resolve conflicts effectively through this approach. Suspicion of mediation interventions and other measures that are tied to the authority of the state means that the promise of service-oriented policing reforms may not be effectively implemented.


Indonesia Police Local male violence Mediation 


  1. Adian, D. (2001). Feminis laki-laki sebagai seni pengambilan jarak. In G. Arivia & N. I. Subono (Eds.), Feminis laki-laki: solusi atau persoalan? (pp. 32–41). Jakarta: Penerbit Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan.Google Scholar
  2. Amnesty International. (2009). Unfinished business: police accountability in Indonesia. London: Amnesty International Publications. Accessed 16 May 2011.
  3. Atkinson, R., & Flint, J. (2001). Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: snowball research strategies. Social Research Update, 33, 33–41.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, G. (2005). Dying to be men: youth, masculinity and social exclusion. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg, S. (2006). Snowball sampling. In S. Kotz, C. B. Read, N. Balakrishnan, & B. Vidakovic (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical science: vol. 12 (2nd ed., pp. 7817–7821). Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  6. Boellstorff, T. (2004). The emergence of political homophobia in Indonesia: masculinity and national belonging. Ethnos, 69(4), 465–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braithwaite, J. (2010). Anomie and violence in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, 1997–2009. Asian Journal of Criminology, 6(1), 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cao, L., & Dai, M. (2006). Confidence in the police: where does Taiwan rank in the world? Journal of Asian Criminology, 1, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavender, G. (1999). Detecting masculinity. In J. Ferrell & N. Websdale (Eds.), Making trouble: cultural constructions of crime, deviance, and control (pp. 157–175). Hawthorne: Aldine De Grangler.Google Scholar
  10. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. (2011). Conflict management in Indonesia –an analysis of the conflicts in Maluku, Papua and Poso. Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, M. (2010). Maskulinitas: culture, gender and politics in Indonesia. Melbourne: Monash University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Collins, E. (2002). The legacy of violence in Indonesia. Asian Survey, 42(4), 582–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colombijn, F. (2005). A cultural practice of violence in Indonesia: lessons from history. In D. F. Anwar, H. Bouvier, G. Smith, & R. Tol (Eds.), Violent internal conflicts in the Asia Pacific: histories, political economies and politics (pp. 245–268). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R. (1995). Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cramer, C. (2010). Unemployment and participation in violence. World Development Report 2011: Background Paper. accessed 14 August 2011.
  16. Davidson, J. (2009). Dilemmas of democratic consolidation in Indonesia. The Pacific Review, 22(3), 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diprose, R. (2009). Decentralization, horizontal inequalities and conflict management in Indonesia. Ethnopolitics, 8(1), 107–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Economist Intelligence Unit. (2011). Democracy Index 2011: Democracy under stress. accessed 15 July 2013.
  19. Elmhirst, R. (2007). Tigers and gangsters: masculinities and feminised migration in Indonesia. Population, Space and Place, 13(3), 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fathurokhman, F. (2013). The necessity of restorative justice on juvenile delinquency in Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 17, 967–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: Volume 1, an introduction. (Trans: Robert Hurley). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  23. Foucault, M. (1983). The subject and power. In H. L. Dreyfus & P. Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (pp. 208–226). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  24. Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the self. In L. H. Martin, H. Glutman, & P. H. Hutton (Eds.), Technologies of the self (pp. 16–49). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  25. Foucault, M. (1997). The ethics of the concern for self as a practice of freedom. In P. Rabinow (Ed.), Ethics: subjectivity and truth (pp. 281–302). London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  26. Geertz, C. (1960). The religion of Java. Glencoe: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. Geertz, C. (1977). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Perseus.Google Scholar
  28. Harjito. (2002). Antara kekerasan dan maskulinitas ‘Enam Jahanam’ karya Indra Traggono. Humaniora, 14(2), 211–219.Google Scholar
  29. Honneth, A. (1997). The struggle for recognition: the moral grammar of social conflicts. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, J., & Hunter, D. (1995). Qualitative research: consensus methods for medical and health sciences research. British Medical Journal, 311, 376–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kurniawan, A. P. (2009). Dinamika maskulinitas laki-laki. Jurnal Perempuan, 64, 37–52.Google Scholar
  32. Lambert, E., & Jiang, S. (2006). A comparison of Chinese and US college students' crime and crime control views. Journal of Asian Criminology, 1, 37–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lindsey, T., & Santosa, M. A. (2008). The trajectory of law reform in Indonesia: a short overview of legal systems change in Indonesia. In T. Lindsey (Ed.), Indonesian law and society (2nd ed., pp. 2–22). Sydney: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  34. McLaughlin, K. & Perdana, A. (2010). Conflict and dispute resolution in Indonesia: Information from the 2006 governance and decentralization survey. Indonesian Social Development Paper No. 16, World Bank. accessed 20 May 2013.
  35. Messerschmidt, J. (1993). Masculinities and crime: critique and reconceptualization of theory. New York: Rowan & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  36. Messner, S., & Rosenfeld, R. (2012). Crime and the American dream (5th ed.). New York: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  37. Morrell, E., Tuerah, N., & Sumarto, H. (2011). Local authority and pro-poor urban management in Indonesia's transition to democracy. International Development Planning Review, 33(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nalla, M. K. (2009). Democratic policing: a comparison of police officers' perceptions of their role and function in transitional societies. Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, 11, 520–535.Google Scholar
  39. Nalla, M. K., & Madan, M. (2012). Determinants of citizens' perceptions of police–community cooperation in India: implications for community policing. Asian Journal of Criminology, 7(1), 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nalla, M. K., & Mamayek, C. (2013). Democratic policing, police accountability, and citizen oversight in Asia: an exploratory study. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 14(2), 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nilan, P., & Demartoto, A. (2012). Patriarchal residues in Indonesia: respect accorded senior men by junior men. European Journal of Social Sciences, 31(2), 279–293.Google Scholar
  42. Nilan, P., Demartoto, A., & Wibowo, A. (2011). Young men and peer fighting in Solo, Indonesia. Men and Masculinities, 14(4), 470–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oetomo, D. (2000). Masculinity in Indonesia: genders, sexualities and identities in a changing society. In R. Parker, R. M. Barbosa, & P. Aggleton (Eds.), Framing the sexual subject: the politics of gender, sexuality and power (pp. 46–59). Berkeley: The University of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Oliver, W. (1994). The violent social world of black men. San Franciso: Josse-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Ryan, G., & Bernard, H. (2000). Data management and analysis methods. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 769–802). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Schulte Nordholt, H. (2002). A genealogy of violence. In F. Colombijn & J. T. Lindblad (Eds.), Roots of violence in Indonesia: contemporary violence in historical perspective (pp. 33–62). Leiden: KITLV Press.Google Scholar
  47. Sidel, J. (2004). Bossism and democracy in the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia: towards an alternative framework for the study of ‘local strongmen’. In J. Harriss, K. Stokke, & O. Tornquist (Eds.), Politicising democracy: the new local politics of democratisation (pp. 51–74). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  48. Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting qualitative data (3rd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Simpson, S., & Gibbs, C. (2006). Making sense of intersections. In K. Heimer & C. Kruttschnitt (Eds.), Gender and crime: patterns in victimisation and offending (pp. 269–302). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sukma, R. (2010). Civil-military relations in post-authoritarian Indonesia. In P. Chambers & A. Croissant (Eds.), Democracy under stress: civil-military relations in South and Southeast Asia (pp. 149–169). Bangkok: Institute of Security and International Studies (ISIS).Google Scholar
  51. Sunardi, C. (2009). Pushing at the boundaries of the body: cultural politics and cross-gender dance in East Java. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 165(4), 459–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tadié, J. (2006). Les territoires de la violence à Jakarta. Paris : <<Mappemonde>>Belin.Google Scholar
  53. Van Wichelen, S. (2009). Polygamy talk and the politics of feminism: contestations over masculinity in a new Muslim Indonesia. Journal of International Women's Studies, 11(1), 173–188.Google Scholar
  54. Villaveces-Izquierdo, S. (2010). Building internal and external constituencies for police reform: an Indonesian case study. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 12(2), 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilson, I. (2012). The biggest cock: territoriality, invulnerability and honour amongst Jakarta's gangsters. In M. Ford & L. Lyons (Eds.), Men and masculinities in Southeast Asia (pp. 121–138). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Woodhouse, A. & Stephens, M. (2004). Village justice in Indonesia: case studies on access to justice, village democracy and governance. Jakarta: Indonesian Social Development Unit of World Bank. accessed 14 May 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Argyo Demartoto
    • 1
  • Pam Nilan
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alex Broom
    • 3
  • John Germov
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversitas Sebelas MaretSoloIndonesia
  2. 2.School of Humanities and Social ScienceUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  3. 3.School of Social SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations