The Internet, Technology, and Organized Crime
- 1.6k Downloads
Digital technology has transformed organizational life. Developments in communications, and in information storage and retrieval, to name just two areas, have greatly enhanced the efficiency with which legitimate organizations operate. Unfortunately, the benefits of digital technology are not lost on criminal organizations, which exploit digital technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of their own operations. This paper will discuss the organized criminal exploitation of digital technology, by looking at a number of illustrative cases from Asia and around the world. It will discuss the various types of “conventional” organized crime that can be facilitated by digital technology, as well as terrorism, which itself can be regarded as a special kind of organized criminal activity. One fundamental question that the paper will seek to address is whether the activities of Asian organized crime have become substantively different as a result of technology, or whether traditional organized criminal activities in Asia are merely being conducted on a more efficient and effective basis. The paper will note the transnational nature of much organized criminal activity, and will discuss mechanisms for the control of organized crime in the digital age.
KeywordsAsia Cybercrime Digital technology Forgery Fraud
The author would like to thank John McFarlane and an anonymous reviewer for their comments on an earlier draft.
- ASEAN Regional Forum (2006). Statement on cooperation in fighting cyber attack and terrorist misuse of cyber space of the thirteenth ASEAN Regional Forum 2006. http://globalwarming.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/conference/arf/state0607-3.html (visited 18 September 2007).
- Ashcroft, J. (2004). Statement of Attorney General John Ashcroft on the Regpay Child Pornography Indictment http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2004/January/04_ag_021.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Associated Press (2006). State Department Suffers Computer Break-Ins. 11 July 2006 http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-07-11-state-department_x.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- BBC News (2001). Attack on Japan ministry website. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_1252000/1252965.stm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Buchanan, J., & Grant, A. (2001). Investigating and prosecuting Nigerian fraud. United States Attorneys’ Bulletin November, 2001, 39–47.Google Scholar
- Bullwinkel, J. (2005). International cooperation in combating cyber-crime in Asia: Existing mechanisms and new approaches. In R. Broadhurst & P. Grabosky (Eds.), Cyber-crime: The challenge in Asia (pp. 269–302). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Burrell, I. (1999). Asian trade in illegal immigration is uncovered. The independent, 27 December, http://news.independent.co.uk/world/asia/article287888.ece (visited 18 September 2007).
- China .org (2007). Banking Authority Addresses Credit Card Fraud http://www.china.org.cn/english/BAT/140063.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Choo, K.-K. R., Smith, R. G., & McCusker, R. (2007). Future directions in technology-enabled crime: 2007–09. Research and Public Policy Series No.78. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rpp/78/ (visited 18 September 2007).
- Cilluffo, F. J. (2007). The internet: A portal to violent Islamist extremism. Testimony to the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, United States Senate, May 3, 2007. http://hsgac.senate.gov/_files/050307Cilluffo.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- CRIENGLISH.com (2006). ‘Flashmob’ of 12 Proposed to One Girl in Beijing. CRIENGLISH.com 3 September (visited 18 September 2007).Google Scholar
- Curtis, G. E., Elan, S., Hudson, R., & Kollars, N. (2003). Transnational activities of Chinese crime organizations. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington. http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/ChineseOrgCrime.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- Denning, D. (2000). Cyberterrorism. Testimony before the special oversight panel on terrorism, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, May 23, 2000. http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/cyberterror.html (Visited 18 September 2007).
- Finnane, M. (2002) Sentencing judgment, Judge Michael John Finnane QC Regina v H. The District Court of New South Wales, Criminal JurisdictionFriday, 23 August 2002 01/11/0877. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/s676658.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Givner-Forbes, R., & Shwery, C. (2007). Mapping the electronic Jihad: An outline of the virtual Jihadi Community. RSIS Commentaries 33/2007 http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0332007.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- Goldstone, D., & Shave, B. (1999). International dimensions of crimes in cyberspace. Fordham International Law Journal, 22, 1924–1971.Google Scholar
- Goodell, J. (2002). How to fake a passport New York Times Magazine February 10, 2002 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=980CE6D6133DF933A25751C0A9649C8B63 (visited 18 September 2007).
- Grabosky, P. N., & Smith, R. G. (1998). Crime in the digital age. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, and Sydney: Federation Press.Google Scholar
- Grant, A., David, F., & Grabosky, P. (1997). Child pornography in the digital age. Transnational Organized Crime, 3(4), 171–188.Google Scholar
- Hill, P. (2005). The changing face of the Yakuza. In M. Galeotti (Ed.), Global crime today (pp. 97–116). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McDonell, R. (1998). Money laundering methodologies and international and regional countermeasures. Paper presented at a conference convened by the Australian Institute of Criminology, Sydney, 7–8 May. http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/gambling/mcdonnell.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- Mitnick, K., & Simon, W. (2005). The art of intrusion. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.Google Scholar
- Nasheri, H. (2005). Economic espionage and industrial spying. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nicholson, J. A. (2005). Flash! Mobs in the age of mobile connectivity. Fiberculture, 6 http://www.journal.fibreculture.org/issue6/index.html (visited 18 September 2007).
- Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (2006). Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Economic Collection and Industrial Espionage 2005. Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Washington http://www.ncix.gov/publications/reports/fecie_all/FECIE_2005.pdf (visited 19 October 2007).
- Parsky, L. H. (2005). Statement before the subcommittee on oversight of government management, the federal workforce, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs United States Senate, June 14, 2005 http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/ParskyIPtestimony061405.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Perl, R. (2005). State crime: The north Korean drug trade. In M. Galeotti (Ed.), Global crime today (pp. 117–128). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Priest, E. (2006). The future of music and film piracy in China. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 21, 795–871.Google Scholar
- Radio Australia (2007). Thai authorities uncover massive credit card fraud 8 January http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/news/stories/s1822746.htm (visited 15 January 2007).
- Ramo, J. C. (1996). Crime Online. Time Digital, September 23, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
- Reuters (2001) Internet sex offer puts Malaysian husband in jail. http://www.newsbits.net/2001/20010404.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Rheingold, H. (2002). Smart mobs: The next social revolution. New York: Perseus Publishing.Google Scholar
- Sheptycki, J. (2000). Introduction. In J. Sheptycki (Ed.), Issues in transnational policing (pp 1–20). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Sims, J. C. (2006). What NSA is doing......and why it’s illegal. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 33(2&3), 101–136.Google Scholar
- Sipress, A. (2004). An Indonesian’s prison memoir takes holy war into cyberspace: In sign of new threat, Militant Offers Tips on Credit Card Fraud, Washington Post 14 December, A19 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A62095-2004Dec13.html (visited 18 September 2007).
- Slotter, K. (1997). Plastic payments: Trends in credit card fraud. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/1997/june971.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Smith, R. G., Holmes, M., & Kaufmann, P. (1999). Nigerian advance fee fraud. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 121. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/ti121.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- Smith, R. G., & Urbas, G. (2001). Controlling fraud on the internet. Research and public policy series no. 39. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rpp/39/ (visited 18 September 2007).
- Stoll, C. (1989). The cuckoo’s egg. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
- Sullivan, J. P. (2001). Gangs, hooligans, and anarchists: the vanguard of netwar in the streets. In D. F. Ronfeldt & J. Arquilla (Eds.), Networks and netwars: The future of terror, crime, and militancy (pp. 99–126). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
- Sussmann, M. (1999). The critical challenges from international high-tech and computer related crime at the millennnium. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 9, 451–489.Google Scholar
- Thomas, T. L. (2003). Al Qaeda and the Internet: The danger of “cyberplanning”. Parameters, 33(1), 112–123 http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/03spring/thomas.htm (visited 18 September 2007).Google Scholar
- US Department of Justice (1997). The Office of Enforcement Operations- its role in the area of electronic surveillance. US Attorneys’ Bulletin, 45(5), 8–18 http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usab4505.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).Google Scholar
- US Department of Justice (2005) First U.S. Convictions in Largest Ever Multinational Investigation of Internet Piracy (March 8) http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/kleinbergPlea.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- US Department of Justice (2007). Operation Buccaneer. http://www.cybercrime.gov/ob/OBorg&pr.htm (visited 18 September 2007).
- Vanderbilt, T. (2004). Follow the crowd: Tom Vanderbilt on new-model flash mobs. ArtForum http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_10_42/ai_n6205876/pg_1 (visited 18 September 2007).
- Vaughan, D. (1983). Controlling unlawful organizational behavior: Social structure and corporate misconduct. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Wahlert, G. (1996). Implications of the move to a cashless society: Law enforcement. In A. Graycar & P. Grabosky (Eds.), Money laundering in the 21st century: Risks and countermeasures. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/rpp/02/rpp02-03.html (visited 18 September 2007).Google Scholar
- Wasik, B. (2006). My crowd: Or, phase 5. Harper’s Magazine, March 2006, 56–66.Google Scholar
- White, R. (2006). Swarming and the social dynamics of group violence. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 326. Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi326.html (visited 18 September 2007).
- Williams, P. (2002). Organized crime and cyber-crime: Implications for business http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/cybercrime-business.pdf (visited 18 September 2007).
- Wong, A. (2006). ‘Flash mob rape’ case conviction. The Standard, 21 September. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=11&art_id=27735&sid=10022367&con_type=3 (visited 18 September 2007).