Parent’s Depression as a Moderator of the Association Between Offspring’s Depressive Symptoms and Use of Combustible Cigarettes and Electronic Vapor Products
Several research teams in systematic reviews have reported a positive association between depression and cigarette smoking,1, 2, 3 with evidence that the association may be bidirectional.1, 2, 3 Compared with the knowledge about the association between depression and cigarette smoking, little is known about the association between depression and electronic vapor product use.4 Two cross-sectional studies of US adults5 and college students6 reported a positive association between mental health problems including depression and electronic vapor product use. A recent longitudinal study among college students in Texas concluded a predictive effect of depressive symptoms on electronic vapor product use, but not vice versa.4
In the USA, both depressive symptoms and nicotine-containing product use, specifically electronic vapor product use, are common and emerging public health concerns among young people.7, 8, 9, 10In 2016, 12.8% of US adolescents aged 12–17 and 10.9% of young...
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declare that he has no conflict of interest.
- 7.Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Methodological summary and definitions. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2017.Google Scholar
- 9.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. E-Cigarette Use among Youth and Young Adults. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Smoking and Health. 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/e-cigarettes/. Accessed on August 8, 2018.
- 11.Augustyn MB, Fulco CJ, Henry KL. Intergenerational continuity in depression: The importance of time-varying effects, maternal co-morbid health risk behaviors and child’s gender. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 2018;1–26.Google Scholar
- 13.Thornberry TP, Henry KL, Krohn MD, et al. Key findings from the Rochester Intergenerational Study. In: Eichelsheim VI, van de Weijer SGA, eds. Intergenerational continuity of criminal and antisocial behavior: An international overview of current studies. London, England: Rougledge:2018:214–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Robins LN, Cottler LB, Bucholz KK, et al. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). St. Louis, MO: Washington University School of Medicine; 2000.Google Scholar
- 19.Pratt L, Brody DJ. Depression in the U.S. household population, 2009–2012. NCHS data brief 172. 2014:1–8.Google Scholar