Investigating the effects of prompts on argumentation style, consensus and perceived efficacy in collaborative learning

  • Owen M. Harney
  • Michael J. Hogan
  • Benjamin Broome
  • Tony Hall
  • Cormac Ryan
Article

Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of task-level versus process-level prompts on levels of perceived and objective consensus, perceived efficacy, and argumentation style in the context of a computer-supported collaborative learning session using Interactive Management (IM), a computer facilitated thought and action mapping methodology. Four groups of undergraduate psychology students (N = 75) came together to discuss the negative consequences of online social media usage. Participants in the task-level group received simple, task-level prompts in relation to the task at hand, whereas the process-level group received both task-level prompts and more specific, and directed, process-level prompts. Perceived and objective consensus were measured before the IM session, and were measured again, along with perceived efficacy of the collaborative learning methodology, after the IM session. Results indicated that those in the process-level prompt groups scored significantly higher on perceived consensus and perceived efficacy of the IM methodology after the session. Analysis of the group dialogue using the Conversational Argument Coding Scheme revealed significant differences between experimental conditions in the style of argumentation used, with those in the process-level prompt groups exhibiting a greater range of argumentation codes. Results are discussed in light of theory and research on instructional support and facilitation in computer-supported collaborative learning.

Keywords

Computer supported collaborative learning Prompts Facilitation Consensus Argumentation 

References

  1. Ackoff, R. L. (1981). Creating the corporate future: Plan or be planned for. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  2. Alberts, H. (1992). Acquisition: past, present and future. Paper presented at the meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences and Operations Research Society, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  3. Alvero, A., Bucklin, B., & Austin, J. (2001). An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings (1985–1998). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), 3–30. doi: 10.1300/J075v21n01_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andriessen, J. (2006). Arguing to learn. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 443–460). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Argyris, C. (1982). Reasoning, learning, and action: Individual and organizational. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Ashby, W. R. (1958). An introduction to cybernetics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Asterhan, C. S., & Schwarz, B. B. (2010). Online moderation of synchronous e-argumentation. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 5(3), 259–282. doi: 10.1007/s11412-010-9088-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, M. J. (2003). Computer-mediated argumentative interactions for the co-elaboration of scientific notions. In J. Andriessen, M. J. Baker, & D. D. Suthers (Eds.), Arguing to learn: Confronting cognitions in computer-supported collaborative learning environments (pp. 47–78). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, M. J., Quignard, M., Lund, K., and Séjourné, A. (2003). Computer-supported collaborative learning in the space of debate. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Designing for Change in Networked Learning Environments, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-0195-2_4.
  10. Balcazar, F. E., Shupert, M. K., Daniels, A. C., Mawhinney, T. C., & Hopkins, B. O. (1989). An objective review and analysis of 10 years of publication in the journal of organizational behavior management. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 10(1), 7–38. doi: 10.1300/J075v10n01_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barr, S. H., & Conlon, E. J. (1994). Effects of distribution of feedback in work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 641–655. doi: 10.2307/256703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barron, B. (2000). Achieving coordination in collaborative problem-solving groups. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(4), 403–43. doi: 10.1207/S15327809JLS0904_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beck, S. J., Gronewold, K., & Western, K. (2012). Intergroup argumentation in city government decision making: The Wal-Mart dilemma. Small Group Research, 43(5), 87–612. doi: 10.1177/1046496412455435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bell, P. (2004). Promoting students’ argument construction and collaborative debate in the science classroom. In M. C. Linn, E. A. Davis, & P. Bell (Eds.), Internet environment for science education (pp. 115–143). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Berthold, K., Nückles, M., & Renkl, A. (2007). Do learning protocols support learning strategies and outcomes? The role of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. Learning and Instruction, 17, 564–577. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boulding, K. E. (1966). The impact of the social sciences. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Broome, B. J. (1995a). Collective design of the future: Structural analysis of tribal vision statements. American Indian Quarterly, 19(2), 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broome, B. J. (1995b). The role of facilitated group process in community-based planning and design: Promoting greater participation in Comanche tribal governance. In L. R. Frey (Ed.), Innovations in group facilitation: Applications in natural settings (pp. 27–52). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  19. Broome, B. J., & Chen, M. (1992). Guidelines for computer-assisted group problem-solving: Meeting the challenges of complex issues. Small Group Research, 23(2), 216–236. doi: 10.1177/1046496492232005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Broome, B. J., & Christakis, A. N. (1988). A culturally-sensitive approach to tribal governance issue management. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12(2), 107–123. doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(88)90043-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broome, B. J., & Cromer, I. L. (1991). Strategic planning for tribal economic development: A culturally appropriate model for consensus building. International Journal of Conflict Management, 2(3), 217–234. doi: 10.1108/eb022700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broome, B. J., & Fulbright, L. (1995). A multi-stage influence model of barriers to group problem solving. Small Group Research, 26(1), 25–55. doi: 10.1177/1046496495261002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, A. L., & Palincsar, A. S. (1989). Guided, cooperative learning and individual knowledge acquisition. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 393–451). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  24. Canary, D. J., Brossmann, B. G., & Siebold, D. R. (1987). Argument structures in decision-making groups. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 53(1), 18–37. doi: 10.1080/10417948709372710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chi, M. T. H. (2000). Self-explaining expository texts: The dual processes of generating inferences and repairing mental models. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 161–238). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  26. Chi, M. T. H., de Leeuw, N., Chiu, M., & LaVancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439–477. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog1803_3.Google Scholar
  27. Christakis, A. N. (1987). Systems profile: The club of Rome revisited. Systems Research, 4(1), 53–58. doi: 10.1002/sres.3850040107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coke, J. G., & Moore, C. M. (1981). Coping with a budgetary crisis: Helping a city council decide where expenditure cuts should be made. In S. W. Burks & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Building city council leadership skills: A casebook of models and methods (pp. 72–85). Washington, DC: National League of Cities.Google Scholar
  29. Currall, S. C., & Judge, T. A. (1995). Measuring trust between organizational boundary role persons. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 64(2), 151–170. doi: 10.1006/obhd.1995.1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis, E. A. (2003). Prompting middle school science students for productive reflection: Generic and directed prompts. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(1), 91–142. doi: 10.1207/S15327809JLS1201_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  32. Delbeq, A. L., Van De Ven, A. H., & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  33. Denson, R. W. (1981). Team training: Literature review and annotated bibliography. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: Air Force Human Resources Laboratory.Google Scholar
  34. Dewett, T. (2003). Towards an interactionist theory of group-level feedback. Management Research News, 26(10–11), 1–21. doi: 10.1108/01409170310784041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dickinson, T. L., & McIntyre, R. M. (1997). A conceptual framework for teamwork measurement. In M. T. Brannick, E. Salas, & C. Prince (Eds.), Team performance and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications (pp. 19–43). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Dillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? In P. Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative learning: Cognitive and computational approaches (pp. 1–19). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  37. Ding, N. and Harskamp, E. G. (2009). Gender difference in students’ cognitive representations during collaborative problem-solving in physics. International Journal of Science Education. Retrieved May 2nd, 2015 from: https://www.rug.nl/research/portal/files/14562479/Chapter%205.
  38. Erkens, G. (2005). Multiple episode protocol analysis. (Version 4.10). [Software] Available from http://edugate.fss.uu.nl/mepa/.
  39. Fahy, P. (2002). Use of linguistic qualifiers and intensifiers in computer conference. American Journal of Distance Education, 16(1), 5–22. doi: 10.1207/S15389286AJDE1601_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fahy, P. (2003). Indicators of support in online interaction. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4(1). Retrieved May 2nd, 2015 from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/129/600.
  41. Gabelica, C., Bossche, P. V. D., Segers, M., & Gijselaers, W. (2012). Feedback, a powerful lever in teams: A review. Educational Research Review, 7(2), 123–144. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2011.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gamlem, S. M., & Munthe, E. (2014). Mapping the quality of feedback to support students’ learning in lower secondary classrooms. Cambridge Journal of Education, 44(1), 75–92. doi: 10.1080/0305764X.2013.855171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gan, M. J., & Hattie, J. (2014). Prompting secondary students’ use of criteria, feedback specificity and feedback levels during an investigative task. Instructional Science, 42(6), 861–878. doi: 10.1007/s11251-014-9319-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ge, X., & Land, S. M. (2003). Scaffolding students’ problem-solving processes in an ill-structured task using question prompts and peer interactions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(1), 21–38. doi: 10.1007/BF02504515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gelmini-Hornsby, G., Ainsworth, S., & O’Malley, C. (2011). Guided reciprocal questioning to support children’s collaborative storytelling. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6(4), 577–600. doi: 10.1007/s11412-011-9129-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Graesser, A. C., Person, N. K., & Huber, J. (1993). Question asking during tutoring and in the design of educational software. In M. Rabinowitz (Ed.), Cognitive foundations of instruction (pp. 149–172). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Guzzo, R. A., Jette, R. D., & Katzell, R. A. (1985). The effects of psychologically based intervention programs on worker productivity: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 38(2), 275–291. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1985.tb00547.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harford, J., & MacRuairc, G. (2008). Engaging student teachers in meaningful reflective practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1884–1892. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2008.02.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harney, O., Hogan, M. J., & Broome, B. (2012). Collaborative learning: The effects of trust and open and closed dynamics on consensus and efficacy. Social Psychology of Education, 15(4), 517–532. doi: 10.1007/s11218-012-9202-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hattie, J. A. C., & Gan, M. (2011). Instruction based on feedback. In R. Mayer & P. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of research on learning and instruction (pp. 249–271). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112. doi: 10.3102/003465430298487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2002). Collaborative ways of knowing: Issues in facilitation. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Foundations for a CSCL Community. Paper presented at the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, Boulder, Colarado. doi:10.1.1.16.9070.Google Scholar
  53. Hogan, K. (1999). Thinking aloud together: A test of an intervention to foster students’ collaborative scientific reasoning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 1085–1109. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199912)36:10<1085::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-D.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hogan, M. J., Harney, O. M., & Broome, B. (2014). Integrating argument mapping with systems thinking tools - advancing applied systems science. In A. Okada, S. Buckingham Shum, & T. Sherborne (Eds.), Knowledge cartography: Software tools and mapping techniques (pp. 401–421). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Hogan, M.J., Harney, O. M., & Broome, B. (2015). Catalyzing Collaborative Learning and Collective Action for Positive Social Change through Systems Science Education. In, R. Wegerif, J. Kaufman, & L. Li (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking (pp. 441–456). Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Hübner, S., Nückles, M., & Renkl, A. (2010). Writing learning journals: Instructional support to overcome learning-strategy deficits. Learning and Instruction, 20, 18–29. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ilgen, D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, M. S. (1979). Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(4), 349–371. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.64.4.349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jarvenpaa, S. L., Knoll, K., & Leidner, D. (1998). Is anybody out there? The antecedents of trust in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14(4), 29–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kenny, D. A., Albright, L., Malloy, T. E., & Kashy, D. A. (1994). Consensus in interpersonal perception: Acquaintance and the big five. Psychological Bulletin, 116(2), 245–358. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.116.2.245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenworthy, J. B., & Miller, N. (2001). Perceptual asymmetry in consensus estimates of majority and minority members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(4), 597–612. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.80.4.597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ketelaar, E., Den Brok, P., Beijaard, D., & Boshuizen, H. P. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions of the coaching role in secondary vocational education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 64(3), 295–315. doi: 10.1080/13636820.2012.691534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. King, A. (1990). Enhancing peer interaction and learning through guided student- generated questioning. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 111–126. doi: 10.3102/00028312027004664.Google Scholar
  63. Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Epistemology or pedagogy, that is the question. In S. Tobias & T. M. Duffy (Eds.), Constructivist theory applied to instruction: Success or failure? (pp. 144–157). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7(3), 77–124. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-1006.2006.00030.x.Google Scholar
  66. Krause, U. M., Stark, R., & Mandl, H. (2009). The effects of cooperative learning and feedback on e-learning in statistics. Learning and Instruction, 19(2), 158–170. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A, & Jochems, W. (2002). The sociability of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environments. Educational Technology and Society, 5(1), 8–22. doi:10.1.1.95.4422.Google Scholar
  68. Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kuhn, D. (2005). Education for thinking. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1995.9508080335.Google Scholar
  71. McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. (1998). Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 513–530. doi: 10.5465/AMR.1998.926622.Google Scholar
  72. Mento, A., Steel, R. P., & Karren, R. J. (1987). A meta-analytic study of the effects of goal setting on task performance: 1966–1984. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39(1), 52–83. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(87)90045-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyers, R. A., & Brashers, D. E. (1998). Argument in group decision making: Explicating a process model and investigating the argument-outcome link. Communication Monographs, 65(4), 261–281. doi: 10.1080/03637759809376454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Michaelsen, L. K., & Sweet, M. (2008). The essential elements of team-based learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 116I, 7–27. doi: 10.1002/tl.330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychology Review, 63(2), 81–97. doi: 10.1037/h0043158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mohammed, S., & Ringseis, E. (2001). Cognitive diversity and consensus in group decision making: The role of inputs, processes, and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 310–335. doi: 10.1006/obhd.2000.2943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Muller Mirza, N., Tartas, V., Perret-Clermont, A.-N., & de Pietro, J.-F. (2007). Using graphical tools in a phased activity for enhancing dialogical skills: An example with digalo. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2(2–3), 247–272. doi: 10.1007/s11412-007-9021-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nadler, D. A. (1979). The effects of feedback on task group behavior: A review of the experimental research. Organisation Behaviour and Human Performance, 23(3), 309–338. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(79)90001-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neubert, M. J. (1998). The value of feedback and goal setting over goal setting alone and potential moderators of this effect: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 11(4), 321–335. doi: 10.1207/s15327043hup1104_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Paolucci, M., Suthers, D. D., and Weiner, A. (1995, May). Belvédère: stimulating students’ critical discussion. Paper presented at The Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Denver, Colarado. doi: 10.1145/223355.223461.
  81. Pea, R. D. (2004). The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical concepts for learning, education, and human activity. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 423–451. doi: 10.1207/s15327809jls1303_6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pearce, J. L., Sommer, S. M., Morris, A., & Frideger, M. (1992). A configurational approach to interpersonal relations: Profiles of workplace social relations and task interdependence. Irvine: Graduate School of Management, University of California.Google Scholar
  83. Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169. doi: 10.1007/BF01405730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts, K., & O’Reilly, C. (1974). Measuring organizational communication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(3), 321–326. doi: 10.1037/h0036660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rummel, N., & Spada, H. (2005). Learning to collaborate: An instructional approach to promoting collaborative problem solving in computer-mediated settings. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(2), 201–241. doi: 10.1207/s15327809jls1402_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sato, T. (1979). Determination of hierarchical networks of instructional units using the ISM method. Educational Technology Research, 3, 67–75.Google Scholar
  87. Scheuer, O., Loll, F., Pinkwart, N., & McLaren, B. M. (2010). Computer-supported argumentation: A review of the state of the art. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 5(1), 43–102. doi: 10.1007/s11412-009-9080-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Mathematical problem solving. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  89. Schwarz, B. B., & Glassner, A. (2003). The blind and the paralytic: Fostering argumentation in social and scientific issues. In J. Andriessen, M. J. Baker, & D. D. Suthers (Eds.), Arguing to learn: Confronting cognitions in computer-supported collaborative learning environments (pp. 227–260). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Seibold, D. R., & Meyers, R. A. (2007). Group argument: A structuration perspective and research program. Small Group Research, 38(3), 312–336. doi: 10.1177/1046496407301966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Simmons, M., & Cope, D. (1993). Angle and rotation: Effects of different types of feedbacks on the quality of response. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 24(2), 163–176. doi: 10.1007/BF01273690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Simon, H. A. (1960). The new science of management decisions. New York: Harper & Row.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Skinner, K., & Louw, J. (2009). The feminization of psychology: Data from South Africa. International Journal of Psychology, 44(2), 81–92. doi: 10.1080/00207590701436736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, C., McLaughlin, M., & Osborne, K. (1997). Conduct controls on usenet. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2(4), 0. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00197.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stahl, G. (2010). Guiding group cognition in CSCL. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 5(3), 255–258. doi: 10.1007/s11412-010-9091-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stahl, G. (2015). The group as paradigmatic unit of analysis: The contested relationship of CSCL to the learning sciences. In M. Evans, M. Packer, & K. Sawyer (Eds.), Reflections on the learning sciences: Past, present, and future. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 409–426). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Stark, R., Puhl, T., & Krause, U.-M. (2009). Improving scientific argumentation skills by a problem-based learning environment: Effects of an elaboration tool and relevance of student characteristics. Evaluation and Research in Education, 22(1), 51–68. doi: 10.1080/09500790903082362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stegmann, K., Weinberger, A., & Fischer, F. (2007). Facilitating argumentative knowledge construction with computer-supported collaboration scripts. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2(4), 421–447. doi: 10.1007/s11412-007-9028-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stevenson, C. E., Hickendorff, M., Resing, W. C., Heiser, W. J., & de Boeck, P. A. (2013). Explanatory item response modeling of children’s change on a dynamic test of analogical reasoning. Intelligence, 41(3), 157–168. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2013.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Strijbos, J.-W., Kirschner, P. A., & Martens, R. L. (Eds.). (2004). What we know about CSCL: And implementing it in higher education. Boston, MA: Springer.Google Scholar
  102. Suthers, D., & Hundhausen, C. (2003). An empirical study of the effects of representational guidance on collaborative learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(2), 183–219. doi: 10.1207/S15327809JLS1202_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tannen, D. (1998). The argument culture: Moving from debate to dialogue. New York: Random House Trade.Google Scholar
  104. Tjosvold, D. (2008). The conflict-positive organization: It depends upon us. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Van Bruggen, J. M., Boshuizen, H. P., & Kirschner, P. A. (2003). A cognitive framework for cooperative problem solving with argument visualization. In P. A. Kirschner, S. J. Buckingham Shum, & C. S. Carr (Eds.), Visualizing argumentation: Software tools for collaborative and educational sense-making. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  106. Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W., Segers, M., Woltjer, G., & Kirschner, P. (2011). Team learning: Building shared mental models. Instructional Science, 39(3), 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Veerman, A. L., Andriessen, J. E. B., & Kanselaar, G. (2000). Learning through synchronous electronic discussion. Computers & Education, 34(2–3), 1–22. doi: 10.1016/S0360-1315(99)00050-0.Google Scholar
  108. Warfield, J. N. (2006). An introduction to systems science. Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Warfield, J., & Cardenas, R. (1994). A handbook of interactive management. Ames: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Webb, N. M. (1995). Group collaboration in assessment: Multiple objectives, processes and outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(2), 239–261. doi: 10.3102/01623737017002239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wen, Y., Looi, C. K., & Chen, W. (2015). Appropriation of a representational tool in a second-language classroom. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 10(1), 77–108. doi: 10.1007/s11412-015-9208-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Woolley, A. W. (2009). Means vs. Ends: Implications of process and outcome focus for team adaptation and performance. Organization Science, 20(3), 500–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Owen M. Harney
    • 1
  • Michael J. Hogan
    • 1
  • Benjamin Broome
    • 2
  • Tony Hall
    • 1
  • Cormac Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  2. 2.Hugh Downs School of Human CommunicationArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations