The right tool for the wrong task? Match and mismatch between first and second stimulus in double stimulation
- 452 Downloads
Using Vygotsky’s notion of double stimulation as an analytical tool, we discuss the complex relationship between tasks, tools, and agency in CSCL environments. Empirically we examine how learners in a Norwegian senior high school class learning English as a foreign language approach and respond to an open-ended and collectively oriented task using a wiki. Our findings show that collectively oriented knowledge and language production takes place locally in small groups as well as in the larger collective of the class, and that learners find it difficult to maintain awareness of both levels of activity. However, when facing a breakdown in the wiki application, learners sustained strategies that carried many of the characteristics of collective production. We argue that there is a need to further theorize the task-tool relationship in activities involving collective knowledge production and that we need to align pedagogical as well as technological designs in order to give support for such efforts.
KeywordsDouble stimulation Wiki Tasks Collaborative knowledge construction
The writing of this article is supported by the strategic research effort Competence and Media Convergence (CMC) and the “TWEAK” (Tweaking Wikis for Education and Knowledge Advancement) project at the University of Oslo. We thank the learners and teacher at the Secondary School we report from, Ole Smørdal and Thomas Drevon for their design work and productive discussions, Sten Ludvigsen, Svein Olav Norenes, colleagues at InterMedia, and David Middleton for reading and commenting on earlier versions of this paper. Also, we would like to extend our thanks to the reviewers and the editors for the very constructive comments.
- Andriessen, J., Baker, M., Suthers, D. D. (Eds.). (2003). Arguing to learn: Confronting cognitions in computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Aronson, E., Blaney, N., Stephan, C., Sikes, J., & Snapp, M. (1978). The jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
- Augar, N., Raitman, R., & Zhou, W. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis. Paper presented at the Beyond the Comfort Zone, ASCILITE Conference, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
- Bakhtin, M. M. (1979/2000). The dialogic imagination. Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Bergquist, K. (1990). Doing schoolwork. Task premises and joint activity in the comprehensive classroom. Linköping: Linköping University, Department of Communication Studies.Google Scholar
- Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology. A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap.Google Scholar
- Coughlan, P., & Duff, P. A. (1994). Same task, different activities: Analysis of SLA task from an activity theory perspective. In J. P. Lantolf, & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 173–193). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
- Daniels, H. (2001). Vygotsky and pedagogy. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
- de Jong, T., & Jules, P. (2005). The design of powerful learning environments. In P. A. Alexander, & A. P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). London: LEA.Google Scholar
- Désilets, A., Paquet, S., & Vinson, N. G. (2005). Are wikis usable? Paper presented at the WikiSym’05, San Diego, CA, October 16–18.Google Scholar
- Dillenbourg, P. (2002). Overscripting CSCL: The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional design. In P. A. Kirschner (Ed.), Three worlds of CSCL. Can we support CSCL? (pp. 61–91). Heerlen: Open University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Engeström, Y. (1999). Learning, working, and imagining. Twelve studies in activity theory. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy.Google Scholar
- Engeström, Y. (2007). Putting Vygotsky to work: The change laboratory as an application of double stimulation. In H. Daniels, M. Cole, & J. Wertsch (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky (pp. 363–382). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Forte, A., & Bruckman, A. (2006). From wikipedia to the classroom: Exploring online publication and learning. Paper presented at the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
- Gallego, M. A., & Cole, M. (2001). Classroom culture and culture in classroom. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Fourth Edition of the handbook of research on teaching. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Garza, S. L., & Hern, T. (2006). Using wikis as collaborative writing tools: Something wiki this way comes—or not! Retrieved August 8, 2006, from http://critical.tamucc.edu/wiki/WikiArticle/Home.
- Grant, L. (2006). Using wikis in schools: A case study. Retrieved June 5, 2006, from http://www.futurelab.org.uk/research/discuss/05discuss01.htm.
- Lankshear, C., Snyder, I., & Green, B. (2000). Teachers and technoliteracy: Managing literacy, technology and learning in schools. St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
- Leuf, B., & Cunningham, W. (2001). The wiki way: Quick collaboration on the web. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing.Google Scholar
- Linell, P. (1998). Approaching dialogue. Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
- Ludvigsen, S. (2008). What counts as knowledge: Learning to use categories in computer environments. In R. Säljö (Ed.), ICT and transformation of learning practices. Oxford: Pergamon (in press).Google Scholar
- Lund, A. (2004). The teacher as interface. Teachers of EFL in ICT-rich environments: Beliefs, practices, appropriation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
- Lund, A. (2006). WIKI i klasserommet: Individuelle og kollektive praksiser [WIKI in the classroom: Individual and collective practices]. Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, 90(4), 274–288.Google Scholar
- Lund, A., & Smørdal, O. (2006). Is there a space for the teacher in a wiki? In Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym ‘06) (pp. 37–46). Odense, Denmark: ACM Press.Google Scholar
- Mercer, N. (2000). Words and minds: How we use language to think together. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education and Research. (2006). Knowledge promotion. Retrieved June 02, 2007, from http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/kd/Selected-topics/andre/Knowledge-Promotion.html?id=1411.
- Muukkonen, H., Hakkarainen, K., & Lakkala, M. (1999). Collaborative technology for facilitating progressive inquiry: Future learning environment tools. In C. Hoadley, & J. Roschelle (Eds.), Computer support for collaborative learning: Designing new media for a new millennium. Proceedings of CSCL 1999. CA, USA: Palo Alto.Google Scholar
- Newman, D., Griffin, P., & Cole, M. (1984). Social constrains in laboratory and classroom tasks. In B. Rogoff, & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition. Development in social context (pp. 172–193). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (1997). The big picture: Language and learning in hundreds of English lessons. In M. Nystrand (Ed.), Opening dialogue. Understanding the dynamics of language and learning in the English classroom (pp. 30–74). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2002). The digital disconnect: The widening gap between Internet-savvy students and their schools. Retrieved September 14, 2005, from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Schools_Internet_Report.pdf.
- Rasmussen, I. (2005). Project work and ICT: Studying learning as participation trajectories. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo, Oslo.Google Scholar
- Säljö, R. (1999). Learning as the use of tools. A sociocultural perspective on the human-technology link. In K. Littleton, & P. Light (Eds.), Learning with computers. Analysing productive interaction (pp. 144–161). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Säljö, R. (2000). Lärandet i praktiken. Ett sociokulturellt perspektiv [Learning in Practice: A sociocultural perspective]. Stockholm, SE: Prisma.Google Scholar
- Saxe, G. B. (2006). Methods and techniques for studying the travel of ideas in classroom communities. Retrieved September 17, 2007, from http://escalate.org.il/construction_knowledge/papers/saxe.pdf.
- Scaletta, K. (2006, July 28, 2006). Teaching with Wikis. Retrieved August 9, 2006, from https://wiki.umn.edu/twiki/bin/view/TeachingWithWikis/WebHome.
- Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1996). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. In T. Koschmann (Ed.), CSCL: Theory and practice of an emerging paradigm. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.Google Scholar
- Stahl, G. (2006). Group cognition: Computer support for building collaborative knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Strijbos, J. W., Kirschner, P. A., & Martens, R. L. (2004). What We Know About CSCL...and what we do not (but need to) know about CSCL. In J.-W. Strijbos, P. Kirschner, & R. Martens (Eds.), What we know about CSCL: And implementing it in higher education (pp. 245–259). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Valsiner, J., & van der Veer, R. (2000). The social mind: Construction of the idea. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- van Dijk, T. A. (1997). The study of discourse. In T. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process (vol. 1, pp. 1–34). London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Wang, H.-C., Lu, C.-H., Yang, J.-Y., Hu, H.-W., Chiou, G.-F., Chiang, Y.-T., et al. (2005). An empirical exploration of using wiki in an English as a second language course. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July.Google Scholar
- Wasson, B., & Ludvigsen, S. (2003). Designing for knowledge building (no. 19). Oslo, NO: Forsknings–og kompetansesenteret for IT i utdanning, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
- Wertsch, J. V. (1998). Mind as action. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar