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The basis of feeling-of-knowing judgments in patients with schizophrenia


We examined the basis of feeling-of-knowing judgments (FOK) in patients with schizophrenia. Such patients typically have impaired memory and awareness, but not metamemory-accuracy deficits. The magnitude of FOKs are lower for patients with schizophrenia than for healthy participants, but judgments equally predict memory performance. In healthy participants, FOK is based on accessible information, including retrieval of partial-target (e.g., retrieving the first letter) and contextual information (e.g., related facts). In Experiment 1, we examined if accessible information predicts FOKs for episodic memory in patients with schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls learned names paired with drawings of imaginary animals. The results showed that patients’ FOK increased with the retrieval of partial-target and contextual information. In Experiment 2, using semantic-memory general-information questions, accessible partial-target information predicted FOKs in patients with schizophrenia. The accessibility model of FOK applies to patients with schizophrenia, and it is important to determine what occurs in other memory-impaired populations.

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This study received support from INSERM (the French National Institute for Health and Medical Research), the University Hospital of Strasbourg, and Strasbourg University (Unistra). The authors thank Denis Dumas, who designed the TOTimals, Patrick Gries for computerization of the task, Evgenia Sevdinoglou, who was involved in testing the participants of Experiment 1. We thank Christel Jacob and Catherine Mertz for testing patients in Experiment 2.

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Correspondence to Bennett L. Schwartz.

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Bacon, E., Pillot, M., Izaute, M. et al. The basis of feeling-of-knowing judgments in patients with schizophrenia. Metacognition Learning 13, 91–108 (2018).

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  • Schizophrenia
  • Cognition
  • Memory, metamemory
  • Metacognition
  • FOK