Regulation and socio-emotional interactions in a positive and a negative group climate
Collaboration in an online environment can be a socially and emotionally demanding task. It requires group members to engage in a great deal of regulation, where favourable emotions need to be sustained for the group’s productive functioning. The purpose of this cross-case analysis was to examine the interplay of two groups’ regulatory processes, regulatory modes, and socio-emotional interactions that contribute to or are influenced by emotions and socio-emotional climate perceived in the group. Specifically, this study compared a group of 4 students unanimously reporting a positive climate to a group of 4 students unanimously reporting a negative climate after completing a 90-min online text-based collaborative assignment. By drawing on two data channels (i.e., observed regulatory actions and socio-emotional interactions during collaboration and self-reported data about emotional beliefs and perceptions), four contrasting group features emerged: (a) incoming conditions served as a foundation for creating a positive collaborative experience, (b) regulation of emotions during initial planning, (c) negative emotions served as a constraint for shared adaptation in the face of a challenge, and (d) encouragement and motivational statements served as effective strategies for creating a positive climate. Implications for researching and supporting emotion regulation in collaborative learning are discussed.
KeywordsCross-case analysis Computer-supported collaborative learning Regulation Socio-emotional interactions Emotions
This study was funded by Social Science and Humanities Research Council Canada (Standard Research Grant 435–2012-0529 awarded to A. F. Hadwin; and Doctoral Fellowship awarded to E. A. Webster).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
A. F. Hadwin and E. A. Webster have received research grants from Social Science and Humanities Research Council Canada. A. F. Hadwin is a current member of Metacognition and Learning Journal Editorial Board.
- Boekaerts, M. (2011). Emotions, emotion regulation, and self-regulation of learning. In B. Zimmerman & D. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 408–425). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2011). Self-regulated, co-regulated, and socially-shared regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 65–84). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hadwin, A. F., Järvelä, S., & Miller, M. (2017). Self-regulation, co-regulation and shared regulation in collaborative learning environments. In D. Schunk & J. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Panadero, E., Malmberg, J., Phielix, C., Jaspers, J., et al. (2015). Enhancing socially shared regulation in collaborative learning groups: Designing for CSCL regulation tools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(1), 125–142. doi: 10.1007/s11423-014-9358-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Hadwin, A., Järvenoja, H., Malmberg, J., Miller, M., & Laru, J. (2016). Socially shared regulation of learning in CSCL: Understanding and prompting individual-and group-level shared regulatory activities. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 11(3), 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Järvenoja, H., & Järvelä, S. (2013). Regulating emotions together for motivated collaboration. In M. Baker, J. Andriessen, & S. Järvelä (Eds.), Affective learning together: Social and emotional dimensions of collaborative learning. Routledge. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4842-6.
- Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Kempler, T. M., & Linnenbrink, E. A. (2006). Helping behaviors in collaborative groups in math: A descriptive analysis. In S. A. Karabenick & R. S. Newman (Eds.), Help seeking in academic settings: Goals, groups, and contexts (pp. 89–116). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- Lajoie, S. P., Lee, L., Poitras, E., Bassiri, M., Kazemitabar, M., Cruz-Panesso, I., et al. (2015). The role of regulation in medical student learning in small groups: Regulating oneself and others’ learning and emotions. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 601–616. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCaslin, M., & Good, T. L. (1996). The informal curriculum. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 622–670). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
- Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2007). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/about-us/p21-framework.
- Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 452–502). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Pitman, M. A., & Maxwell, J. A. (1992). Qualitative approaches to evaluation: Models and methods. The handbook of qualitative research in education, 729, 770.Google Scholar
- Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (1999). Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 14(2), 50–71.Google Scholar
- Solomon, R. C. (2008). The philosophy of emotions. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 3–16). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Volet, S. (2001). Significance of cultural and motivation variables on students’ attitudes towards group work. Student Motivation (pp. 309–333). US: Springer.Google Scholar
- Webster, E. A., & Hadwin, A. F. (2014). Emotions and emotion regulation in undergraduate studying: Examining students’ reports from a self-regulated learning perspective. Educational Psychology, 1–25. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2014.895292.
- Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated engagement in learning. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277–304). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Winne, P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (2008). The weave of motivation and self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research and applications (pp. 298–314). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Winne, P. H., Hadwin, A. F., & Perry, N. E. (2013). Metacognition and computer-supported collaborative learning. In C. E. Hmelo-Silver, C. A. Chinn, C. K. K. Chan, & A. O’Donnell (Eds.), The international handbook of collaborative learning (pp. 462–479). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar