Metacognition and Learning

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 15–42 | Cite as

Integrating the regulation of affect, behavior, and cognition into self-regulated learning paradigms among secondary and post-secondary students

  • Adar Ben-Eliyahu
  • Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia


An integrative framework for investigating self-regulated learning situated in students’ favorite and least favorite courses was empirically tested in a sample of 178 high school and 280 college students. Building on cognitive, clinical, social, and educational conceptions of self-regulation, the current paper integrated affective (e.g., reappraisal, suppression), behavioral (e.g., environmental, planning), and cognitive (e.g., cognitive focusing, metacognition) forms of regulation with self-regulated learning strategies (deep and surface processing, organization, engagement) to predict achievement. Overall, self-regulation was employed more frequently in favorite courses and by college students. Path models examined the associations of affective, behavioral, and cognitive regulation with learning strategies and achievement. These analyses suggested that affective, behavioral, and cognitive regulation were related to learning strategies, but the links to achievement were less robust. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from behavioral and cognitive regulation to achievement through learning strategies, although some of these indirect paths were counter to expectations.


Self-regulation Cognition Emotion Behavior Learning Self-regulated learning Development Liking 



The research reported in this manuscript was supported by grants from: American Psychological Association Division 15 Dissertation Research Award; Social Science Research Institute, Duke University; and the Aleane Webb Dissertation Research Fellowship, Duke University. The findings and views reported in this manuscript are the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect the views of Duke University or American Psychological Association.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Duke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.University of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  3. 3.Michigan State UniversityMichiganUSA

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