Metacognition and Learning

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 207–228 | Cite as

“How do I remember when I got my dog?” The structure and development of children’s metamemory

  • Kristina FritzEmail author
  • Pauline Howie
  • Sabina Kleitman


Kreutzer et al.’s (Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 40(1):1–60, 1975) metamemory interview has been widely used in children’s metamemory literature, yet the psychometric properties of the measure have yet to be reported, and the format and language of some subtests may pose problems for young children. Researchers often combine subtests with other tests purported to measure metamemory, yet there is little empirical data regarding how these subtests relate. It has been proposed that metamemory is comprised of distinct procedural and declarative components, but this has not been empirically tested in young children. Therefore, the two studies reported here aimed to adapt Kreutzer et al.’s interview to increase its developmental appropriateness, to examine the relationship between the interview subtests, to add subtests that purport to test procedural metamemory, and then to examine the factor structure of the resulting scores and investigate how metamemory changes with age across the elementary school years. The results suggest that the adapted versions of the subtests are generally less contaminated by language ability, especially for the younger children. Factor analysis indicated the presence of two declarative metamemory factors and one procedural metamemory factor. Both declarative factors followed a similar developmental trajectory, increasing steadily from early to late elementary school age, whereas procedural metamemory increased significantly between Grades 1 and 3 only.


Metamemory Developmental 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Fritz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pauline Howie
    • 1
  • Sabina Kleitman
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

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