Metacognition and Learning

, Volume 2, Issue 2–3, pp 177–183 | Cite as

The assessment and instruction of self-regulation in computer-based environments: a discussion

  • Marcel V. J. Veenman

A discussion has been going on over two decades whether self-regulation is subordinate to metacognition, or whether self-regulation is superordinate to metacognition (Veenman et al. 2006). Some researchers have equated self-regulation with executive or metacognitive skills (cf. Brown and DeLoache 1978; Kluwe 1987; Vermunt 1986; Veenman et al. 1993; Winne 1996), whereas more recently self-regulation is defined as a broader set of knowledge and skills, including domain-specific knowledge, cognitive skills, metacognitive knowledge and skills, and motivational processes (cf. Boekaerts et al. 2000; Schraw et al. 2002; Schunk and Zimmerman 1994). In the latter case, to me it seems important to disentangle the several components of self-regulation (see also Borkowski et al. 2000). Depending on the nature of the learning task the weight of self-regulatory components may vary. For instance, when domain-specific knowledge is lacking or when the learning task is very difficult, metacognitive...


Convergent Validity Metacognitive Skill Intelligent Tutor System Advanced Student Metacognitive Activity 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Developmental and Educational PsychologyLeiden University—Institute for Psychological ResearchLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Graduate School of Teaching and LearningUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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