Advertisement

Philosophia

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1419–1438 | Cite as

The Methodology of Philosophical Practice: Eclecticism and/or Integrativeness?

  • Aleksandar Fatić
  • Ivana Zagorac
Article

Abstract

The need for philosophical practice to integrate various methods, both conceptual and those based on the use of emotions, raises the question as to whether its methodology is necessarily eclectic, in terms of the collection of various methodologies used in philosophy, or whether there is a way to move beyond eclecticism. This is the main subject of this paper. In other words, the question is whether there is such a thing as an ‘integrative’ methodology and, if so, what distinguishes such a method from mere eclecticism. In this text, we define the methodological procedure of integrativeness as the process of systematizing perspectives into an orientational answer to the demands of a specific problem. What differentiates such an approach from mere summation is a new contribution that results from a synergistic and systematic meeting of positions and argumentations whose final result differs from its initial elements. Diversity in the form of a multidimensional relationship towards life and the world results in numerous perspectives, which is a value that should be cultivated and integrated into a reflective and actional perception of the world.

Keywords

Philosophical practice Methodology Eclecticism Pluri-perspectivism Integrativeness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A part of this research was supported under Marie Curie Newfelpro funding scheme (CONVINce-ME project, FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND program; Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport). The project was hosted by the Institute for Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, Ruhr University Bochum. The research for the article also arises from Project no. 179049 (“Policies of Remembrance and National Identity: The Regional and European Context”) funded by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Research, which is implemented by the Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory, University of Belgrade, 2010–2015.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Agamben, G. (2013). Opus Dei: an archaeology of duty. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, S. (1962). ‘They decide who lives, who dies. Medical miracle puts moral burden on small committee. Life (9 November 1962).Google Scholar
  3. Boix Mansilla, V., & Dawes Duraising, E. (2007). Targeted assessment of students’ interdisciplinary work: an empirically grounded framework proposed. The Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 215–237. doi: 10.1353/jhe.2007.0008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Čović, A. (2006). Pluralizam i pluriperspektivizam. Filozofska istraživanja, 26(1), 7–12.Google Scholar
  5. Crowder, G. (2003). Pluralism, relativism and liberalism in Isaiah Berlin. Referred paper. Resourced document. http://berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk/lists/onib/crowder/IBVPREL2003.pdf. Accessed 14 October 2014.
  6. DeWitt, R. (2010). Worldviews. An introduction to the history and philosophy of science. Second edition. Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Fatić, A. (2013a). Corruption, corporate character-formation and ‘value strategy’. Filozofija i društvo, 24(1), 60–80. doi: 10.2298/FID1301060F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fatić, A. (2015). Tasks for dreaming. The somatic cognition of emotions in moral judgment. In M. N. Weiss (Ed.), The socratic handbook (pp. 67–82). Wienna: Lit Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Fatić, A. (2016). Virtue as identity: emotions and the moral personality. London: Rowman and Littlefield International.Google Scholar
  10. Fatić, A., & Dentsoras, D. (2014). Pleasure in epicurean and christian orthodox conceptions of happiness. South African Journal of Philosophy. doi: 10.1080/02580136.2014.967594.Google Scholar
  11. Fatić, A. (2013b). Epicurean ethics as a foundation for philosophical counselling. Philosophical Practice, 8(1), 1127–1141.Google Scholar
  12. Feary, V. (2003). Virtue-based feminist philosophical counselling. Practical Philosophy, 6(1), 7–26.Google Scholar
  13. Feary, V. (2004). Spirituality and philosophical practice: counseling with clients in crisis. Philosophical Practice, 9(3), 1413–1425.Google Scholar
  14. Ferraiolo, W. (2010). The IDEA method: stoic counsel. Philosophical Practice, 5(2), 627–633.Google Scholar
  15. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  16. Hadot, P. (1995). Philosophy as a way of life. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Heidegger, M. (1982). The basic problems of phenomenology (Albert Hofstadter (trans.). Revised edition). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Jay, M. (1988). Scopic regimes of modernity. In H. Foster (Ed.), Vision and visuality (p. 3323). New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jay, M. (1991). The disenchantment of the eye: surrealism and the crisis of ocularcentrism. Visual Anthropology Review, 7(1), 15–38. doi: 10.1525/var.1991.7.1.15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kant, I. (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Paul Guyer (ed. and trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1017/CBO9780511804656.
  21. Kolepman, L. M. (2013). The growth of bioethics as a second-order discipline. In J. R. Garrett, F. Jotterand, & C. D. Ralston (Eds.), The development of bioethics in the united states (pp. 137–158). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Lahav, R. (2001). Philosophical Counselling as a Quest for Wisdom. Practical Philosophy, March Issue. Resource document. http://www.society-for-philosophy-in-practice.org/journal/pdf/4-1%2006%20Lahav%20-%20Quest%20for%20Wisdom.pdf. Accessed 28 December 2014.
  23. Lewis, T., Amini, F., & Lannon, R. (2000). A general theory of love. London: Random House.Google Scholar
  24. Luhmann, N. (1987). Soziale systeme: grundriβ einer allgemeinen theorie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  25. Mills, J. (2001). Philosophical counselling as psychotherapy: an eclectic approach. International Journal of Philosophical Practice, 1(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  26. Mittelstraß, J. (1982). Wissenschaft als Lebensform. Reden über philosophische Orientierungen in Wissenschaft und Univeristät. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.Google Scholar
  27. Nietzsche, F. (2006). On the genealogy of morality. In A.-P. Keith (Ed.), Carol Deithe (trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Österman, B. (2014). Neo-socratic dialogus as a paradigmatic setting for philosophizing. Philosophical Practice, 9(3), 1426–1435.Google Scholar
  29. Repko, A. F. (2007). Integrating interdisciplinarity: How the theories of common ground and cognitive interdisciplinarity are informing the debate on interdisciplinary integration. Issues in Integrative Studies, 25, 1–31.Google Scholar
  30. Rukavina, K. (2010). “Okulocentrizam” ili privilegiranje vida u zapadnoj kulturi. Filozofska istraživanja, 32(3–4), 539–556.Google Scholar
  31. Slote, M. (2009). Moral sentimentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391442.001.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Solomon, X. (1999). A better way to think about business: how personal integrity leads to corporate success. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Yalom, I., & Leszcz, M. (2005). Theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aleksandar Fatić, Institute for Philosophy and Social TheoryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Ivana Zagorac, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Institute for Medical Ethics and History of MedicineRuhr University BochumBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations