Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

SR-MAC: A Low Latency MAC Protocol for Multi-Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • 231 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

Event detection is one of the major applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols are mainly optimized for the situation under which an event only generates one packet on a single sensor node. When an event generates multiple packets on a single node, the performance of these MAC protocols degrades rapidly. In this paper, we present a new synchronous duty-cycle MAC protocol called SR-MAC for the event detection applications in which multiple packets are generated on a single node. SR-MAC introduces a new scheduling mechanism that reserves few time slots during the SLEEP period for the nodes to transmit multiple packets. By this approach, SR-MAC can schedule multiple packets generated by an event on a single node to be forwarded over multiple hops in one operational cycle without collision. We use event delivery latency (EDL) and event delivery ratio (EDR) to measure the event detection capability of the SR-MAC protocol. Through detailed ns-2 simulation, the results show that SR-MAC can achieve lower EDL, higher EDR and higher network throughput with guaranteed energy efficiency compared with R-MAC, DW-MAC and PR-MAC.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    LAN MAN standards committee of the IEEE computer society. Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specification. IEEE Std 802.11-1997, New York, NY, USA, 1997.

  2. [2]

    Stemm M, Katz RH (1997) Measuring and reducing energy consumption of network interfaces in hand-held devices. IEICE Trans Communications E80-B(8):1125–1131

  3. [3]

    Polastr J, Hill J, Culler D. Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 2nd Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov. 2004, pp.95–107.

  4. [4]

    Ye W, Heidemann J, Estrin D. An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Jun. 2002, pp.1567–1576.

  5. [5]

    Du S, Saha A K, Johnson D B. RMAC: Routing-enhanced duty-cycle MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 26th IEEE Conf. Computer Communications, May 2007, pp.1478–1486.

  6. [6]

    Sun Y, Du S, Gurewitz O, Johnson D B. DW-MAC: A low latency, energy efficient demand-wakeup MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 9th Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, May 2008, pp.53–62.

  7. [7]

    Canli T, Khokhar A. PRMAC: Pipelined routing enhanced MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the Int. Conf. Communication, Jun. 2009, pp.1–5.

  8. [8]

    Buettner M, Yee G V, Anderson E, Han R. X-MAC: A short preamble MAC protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 4th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 2006, pp.307–320.

  9. [9]

    Sun Y, Gurewitz O, Johnson D B. RI-MAC: A receiver-initiated asynchronous duty cycle MAC protocol for dynamic traffic loads in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 6th Conf. Embedded Network Sensor Systems, Nov. 2008, pp.1–14.

  10. [10]

    Tang L, Sun Y, Gurewitz O, Johnson D B. PW-MAC: An energy-efficient predictive-wakeup MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 30th IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications, Apr. 2011, pp.1305–1313.

  11. [10]

    Ye W, Heidemann J, Estrin D (2004) Medium access control with coordinated adaptive sleeping for wireless sensor networks. Transactions on Networking 12(3):493–506

  12. [11]

    van Dam T, Langendoe K. An adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 1st Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov. 2003, pp.171–180.

  13. [12]

    El-Hoiydi A, Decotignie J D. WiseMAC: An ultra low power MAC protocol for multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 1st International Workshop on Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks, Jul. 2004, pp.18–31.

  14. [13]

    Lu G, Krishnamachari B, Raghavendra C S. An adaptive energy-efficient and low-latency MAC for data gathering in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 18th Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Apr. 2004, pp.224–231.

  15. [14]

    Lu G, Sadagopan N, Krishnamachari B, Goel A. Delay efficient sleep scheduling in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Mar. 2005, pp.2470–2481.

  16. [15]

    Keshavarzian A, Lee H, Venkatraman L. Wakeup scheduling in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 7th ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, May 2006, pp.322–333.

  17. [16]

    Elson J, Girod L, Estrin D. Fine-grained network time synchronization using reference broadcasts. In Proc. the 5th Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation, Dec. 2002, pp.147–163.

  18. [17]

    Ganeriwal S, Kumar R, Srivastava M B. Timing-sync protocol for sensor networks. In Proc. the 1st Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov. 2003, pp.138–149.

  19. [18]

    Ye W, Silva F, Heidemann J. Ultra-low duty cycle MAC with scheduled channel polling. In Proc. the 4th Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Oct. 31-Nov. 3, 2006, pp.321–334.

  20. [19]

    Shnayder V, Hempstead M, Chen B, Allen G W, Welsh M. Simulating the power consumption of large-scale sensor network applications. In Proc. the 2nd Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov. 2003, pp.188–200.

  21. [20]

    Hull B, Jamieson K, Balakrishnan H. Mitigating congestion in wireless sensor networks. In Proc. the 2nd Int. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov. 2004, pp.134–147.

  22. [21]

    Cano C, Bellalta B, Barceló J, Sfairopoulou A. A novel MAC protocol for event-based wireless sensor networks: Improving the collective QoS. In Proc. the 7th Int. Conf. Wired/Wireless Internet Communications, May 2009, pp.1–12.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Hong-Wei Tang.

Additional information

This work was supported the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61103011.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

(DOC 15.7 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tang, H., Cao, J., Liu, X. et al. SR-MAC: A Low Latency MAC Protocol for Multi-Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks. J. Comput. Sci. Technol. 28, 329–342 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11390-013-1334-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • medium access control protocol
  • synchronous
  • duty cycle
  • event delivery latency
  • event delivery ratio