Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery using heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles with transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
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This study was performed to determine if a combination of previously undifferentiated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivered via heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (HCPNs) would extensively regenerate bone in vivo. In vitro testing found that the HCPNs were able to release BMP-2 over a 2-week period. Human BMMSCs cultured in medium containing BMP-2-loaded HCPNs for 2 weeks differentiated toward osteogenic cells expressing alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA, while cells without BMP-2 expressed only ALP. In vivo testing found that undifferentiated BMMSCs with BMP-2-loaded HCPNs induce far more extensive bone formation than either implantation of BMP-2-loaded HCPNs or osteogenically differentiated BMMSCs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of extensive in vivo bone regeneration by transplantation of undifferentiated BMMSCs and BMP-2 delivery via HCPNs.
KeywordsBone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell Bone morphogenetic protein-2 Bone regeneration Heparin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles
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