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An indium:calcium phosphate colloid that specifically targets fibrin

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Abstract

The ability of indium to target fibrin in vitro was evaluated. The radionuclide 114mIndium (114mIn) was prepared as a soluble and colloidal (In:In) form, as well as, a mixed indium:calcium phosphate (In:CaP) colloid. Soluble 114mIn was prepared by maintaining acid pH (50 mM HCl). Colloidal 114mIn (In:In) was prepared under slightly basic conditions (50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.6). The mixed In:CaP colloid was prepared by incubation of 114mIn with calcium (10 mM) and phosphate (250 μM) under slightly basic conditions (50 mM Tris-Cl, pH 7.6). To assess fibrin binding, the three 114mIn preparations were mixed with diluted human plasma (source of fibrinogen). Fibrin polymerization was initiated by addition of calcium (5 mM) and thrombin (0.5 U/ml). Following incubation (15 min, 37 °C), the fibrin matrix was condensed, removed from the reaction mixture, and washed briefly. Fibrin uptake of 114mIn (soluble, colloidal, or In:CaP) was determined by gamma counting. Results demonstrated that soluble 114mIn exclusively bound a plasma protein electrophoretically and immunologically identified as transferrin. Although both colloidal 114mIn and 114mIn:CaP bound fibrin, the mixed 114mIn:CaP colloid demonstrated substantially higher fibrin binding activity (about 2-fold). The target of indium binding was confirmed as fibrin due to the presence of characteristic cross-linked γ–γ dimers (100 kDa) and β-monomers (58 kDa) by SDS-PAGE. 114mIn colloid and the mixed 114mIn:CaP colloid demonstrated no ability to bind fibrin’s precursor, fibrinogen. 114mIn:CaP fibrin binding was associated with formation of CaP, as evidenced by its dependence on phosphate concentration. The biocompatibility of CaP including its ability to bind 114mIn and specifically target fibrin may be of potential value for diagnostic imaging studies to identify regions of occult vascular stenosis (i.e., atherosclerotic plaques, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus).

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Correspondence to Gregory S. Makowski or Melinda L. Ramsby.

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Makowski, G.S., Ramsby, M.L. & Ramsby, G.R. An indium:calcium phosphate colloid that specifically targets fibrin. J Biomed Sci 12, 421–429 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11373-004-0226-6

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Keywords

  • calcium phosphate
  • fibrin
  • indium
  • inflammation
  • imaging agents
  • thrombus