Advertisement

Rainstorm pattern effects on the size distribution of soil aggregate in eroded sediment within contour ridge systems

  • 35 Accesses

Abstract

Purpose

Intra-storm temporal distributions of rainfall intensity (storm patterns) greatly affect soil erosion process within flat tillage systems, but limited information is available about its influence on the distribution characteristics of soil aggregate, especially within contour ridge system.

Materials and methods

In this study, a laboratory study of 12 rainfall simulation experiments was conducted to analyze the loss characteristic of 16 sizes aggregate in eroded sediment within contour ridge system under the rising, falling, rising–falling, and falling–rising patterns. All patterns included three rainfall intensities, 30, 60, and 90 mm h−1, and comprised the same rainfall amount and kinetic energy.

Results and discussion

The results showed that storm patterns showed significant influence on soil aggregate loss. The rising–falling, falling–rising, and falling pattern had 1.43, 1.11, and 1.04 times soil aggregate loss greater than the rising pattern, respectively. Differences in size distribution of soil aggregate among storm patterns mainly concentrated on the most eroded size of microaggregate, especially 50–100 μm fraction. An intensity of 30 mm h−1 made the greatest contribution of 100.87%–511.93% to the diversity of soil aggregate loss following the storm pattern simulations relative to 60 and 90 mm h−1 intensities, likely resulting from erosion process, soil aggregate detachment, and runoff transport abilities from 30 mm h−1 intensity varying within storm pattern duration. The occurring periods of rainfall intensity significantly affected the loss of each size aggregate and showed the most obvious influence on 50–100 μm aggregate. Effects of storm pattern and rainfall intensity occurring periods were more pronounced with the increase of aggregate size at the macro-aggregate scale. Contour failure was easily to occur under the most prevalent storm pattern—falling and rising–falling patterns—which comprised 59.44% of soil aggregate loss.

Conclusions

Results recommended that more attention should be given to contour ridge stability, especially under falling and rising–falling patterns. Incorporating contour failure and the occurring context of rainfall intensity into the erosion model could successfully simulate soil aggregate loss characteristics, especially small-sized aggregates.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Abdollahi L, Schjonning P, Elmholt S, Munkholm LJ (2014) The effects of organic matter application and intensive tillage and traffic on soil structure formation and stability. Soil Tillage Res 136:28–37

  2. Abu-Hamdeh NH, Abo-Qudais SA, Othman AM (2006) Effect of soil aggregate size on infiltration and erosion characteristics. Eur J Soil Sci 57:609–616

  3. An J, Zheng FL, Han Y (2014) Effects of rainstorm patterns on runoff and sediment yield processes. Soil Sci 179(6):293–303

  4. An J, Liu QJ, Wu YZ (2015) Optimization of the contour ridge system for controlling nitrogen and phosphorus losses under seepage condition. Soil Use Manag 31:89–97

  5. Angel James R, Palecki Michael A, Hollinger Steven E (2005) Storm precipitation in the United States. Part II: soil erosion characteristics. J Appl Meteopol 44(6):947–959

  6. Armstrong A, Quinton JN, Heng BCP, Chandler JH (2011) Variability of interrill erosion at low slopes. Earth Surf Process Landf 36:97–106

  7. Asadi H, Ghadiri H, Rose CW, Yu B, Hussein J (2007) An investigation of flow-driven soil erosion processes at low stream powers. J Hydrol 342:134–142

  8. Assouline S, Ben-Hur M (2006) Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the dynamics of interrill erosion during soil surface sealing. Catena 66(3):211–220

  9. Berger C, Schulze M, Rieke-Zapp D, Schlunegger F (2010) Rill development and soil erosion: a laboratory study of slope and rainfall intensity. Earth Surf Process Landf 35(12):1456–1467

  10. Bronick CJ, Lal R (2005) Soil structure and management, a review. Geoderma 124(1–2):3–22

  11. Buurman P, Pape TH, Muggler CC (1997) Laser grain-size determination in soil genetic studies. 1. Practical problems. Soil Sci 162:211–218

  12. De Neve S, Jin JY, Hartmann R, Hofman G (2009) Residue cover and rainfall intensity effects on runoff soil organic carbon losses. Catena 78(1):81–86

  13. Farmer EE (1973) Relative detachability of soil particles by simulated rainfall. Soil Sci Soc Am J 37(4):629–633

  14. Flanagan DC, Livingston S (1995) Water erosion prediction project (WEPP) user summary-NSERL report no. 11. USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN

  15. Flanagan DC, Foster GR, Moldenhauer WC (1987) Storm pattern effect on infiltration, runoff and erosion. Transactions ASAE 31(2):414–420

  16. Gao B, Waltera MT, Steenhuisa TS, Parlangea JY, Nakanoa K, Rose CW, Hogarth WL (2003) Investigating ponding depth and soil detachability for a mechanistic erosion model using a simple experiment. J Hydrol 277:116–124

  17. Hatfield JL, Allmaras RR, Rehm W, Lowery B (1998) Ridge tillage for corn and soybean production: environmental quality impacts. Soil Tillage Res 48(3):145–154

  18. Huang C, Gascuel-Odoux C, Cros-Cayot S (2001) Hill slope topographic and hydrologic effects on overland flow and erosion. Catena 46:77–188

  19. Jin YH, Zhou DW, Jiang SC (2010) Comparison of soil water content and corn yield in furrow and conventional ridge sown systems in a semiarid region of China. Agr Water Manage 97:326–332

  20. Kay BP, Angers DA (1999). Soil structure. In: Sumner ME (ed) Handbook of soil science. CRC Press, New York, pp A-229–269

  21. Kemper WD, Rosenau RC (1986) Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 425–442

  22. Kinnell PIA (2000) The effect of slope length on sediment concentrations associated with side-slope erosion. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64(3):1004–1008

  23. Kinnell PIA (2012) Raindrop-induced saltation and the enrichment of sediment discharged from sheet and interrill erosion areas. Hydrol Process 26:1449–1456

  24. Lal R (1990) Ridge-tillage. Soil Tillage Res 18(2–3):107–111

  25. Lao JC (1988) Soil and agricultural chemistry analysis. Beijing Agriculture Press, Beijing pp101, 160: 234-235 (in Chinese)

  26. Legout C, Legue’dois S, Le Bissonnais Y (2005) Aggregate breakdown dynamics under rainfall compared with aggregate stability measurements. Eur J Soil Sci 56:225–237

  27. Leguédois S, Le Bissonnais Y (2004) Size fractions resulting from an aggregate stability test, interrill detachment and transport. Earth Surf Process Landf 29:1117–1129

  28. Liu QJ, Zhang HY, An J, Wu YZ (2014a) Soil erosion processes on row sideslopes within contour ridging systems. Catena 115:11–18

  29. Liu QJ, Shi ZH, Yu XX, Zhang HY (2014b) Influence of microtopography, ridge geometry and rainfall intensity on soil erosion induced by contouring failure. Soil Tillage Res 136:1–8

  30. Liu QJ, An J, Zhang GH, Wu XY (2016) The effect of row grade and length on soil erosion from concentrated flow in furrows of contouring ridge systems. Soil Tillage Res 160:92–100

  31. Lu J, Zheng FL, Li GF, Bian F, An J (2016) The effects of raindrop impact and runoff detachment on hillslope soil erosion and soil aggregate loss in the Mollisol region of Northeast China. Soil Tillage Res 161:79–85

  32. Ma RM, Li ZX, Cai CF, Wang JG (2014) The dynamic response of splash erosion to aggregate mechanical breakdown through rainfall simulation events in Ultisols (subtropical China). Catena 121:279–287

  33. Marshall RJ (1983) A spatial–temporal model of storm rainfall. J Hydrol 62:53–62

  34. Martínez-Mena M, Castillo V, Albaladejo J (2002) Relations between interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution in a semiarid Mediterranean area of SE of Spain. Geomorphology 45:261–275

  35. Meyer LD, Line DE, Harmon WC (1992) Size characteristics of sediment from agricultural soils. J Soil Water Conserv 47:107–111

  36. Mohamadi MA, Kavian A (2015) Effect of rainfall patterns on runoff and soil erosion in field plots. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 3:273–281

  37. Moody JA, Shakesby RA, Robichaud PR, Cannon SH, Martin DA (2013) Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes. Earth-Sci Rev 122:10–37

  38. Nearing MA, Bradford JM, Parker SC (1991) Soil detachment by shallow flow at low slopes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:339–344

  39. Nearing MA, Norton LD, Bulgakov DA, Larionov GA, West LT, Dontsova KM (1997) Hydraulics and erosion in eroding rills. Water Resour Res 33:865–876

  40. Neave M, Rayburg S (2007) A field investigation into the effects of progressive rainfall-induced soil seal and crust development on runoff and erosion rates: the impact of surface cover. Geomorphology 87:378–390

  41. Parsons AJ, Stone PM (2006) Effects of intra-storm variations in rainfall intensity on interrill runoff and erosion. Catena 67:68–78

  42. Proffitt APB, Rose CW (1991) Soil erosion processes. II. Settling velocity characteristics of eroded sediment. Soil Res 29(5):685–695

  43. Quinton JN, Catt JA (2004) The effects of minimal tillage and contour cultivation on surface runoff, soil loss and crop yield in the long-term Woburn Erosion Reference Experiment on sandy soil at Woburn, England. Soil Use Manag 20(3):343–349

  44. Ryken N, Vanden Nest T, Al-Barri B, Blake W, Taylor A, Bodé S, Ruysschaert G, Boeckx P, Verdoodt A (2018) Soil erosion rates under different tillage practices in central Belgium: new perspectives from a combined approach of rainfall simulations and 7Be measurements. Soil Tillage Res 179:29–37

  45. Schiettecatte W, Gabriels D, Cornelis WM, Hofman G (2008) Enrichment of organic carbon in sediment transport by interrill and rill erosion processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:50–55

  46. Shen HO, Zheng FL, Wen LL, Han Y, Hu W (2016) Impacts of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on rill erosion processes at loessial hillslope. Soil Tillage Res 155:429–436

  47. Tian Y, Su DR, Li FM, Li XL (2003) Effect of rainwater harvesting with ridge and furrow on yield of potato in semiarid areas. Field Crop Res 84:385–391

  48. Unger PW (1994) Ridge tillage for continuous grain sorghum production with limited irrigation. Soil Tillage Res 31:11–22

  49. USDA-ARS (2008) User’s reference guide revised universal soil loss equation version 2. http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2UserFiles/Place/64080510/RUSLE/RUSLE2_User_Ref_Guide.pdf

  50. Vaezi AR, Ahmadi M, Cerdà A (2017) Contribution of raindrop impact to the change of soil physical properties and water erosion under semi-arid rainfalls. Sci Total Environ 583:382–392

  51. Wang L, Shi ZH (2015) Size selectivity of eroded sediment associated with soil texture on steep slopes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 79:917–929

  52. Wang JG, Li ZX, Cai CF, Yang W (2012) Effects of transport distance and flow discharge of overland flow on destruction of Ultisol aggregates. Particuology 10:607–613

  53. Wang WT, Yin SQ, Xie Y, Liu BY, Liu YN (2016) Effects of four storm patterns on soil loss from five soils under natural rainfall. Catena 141:56–65

  54. Wen LL, Zheng FL, Yang QS, Shen HO (2012) Effects of rainfall patterns on hillslope farmland erosion in black soil region of Northeast China. J Hydraul Eng 43(9):1084–1091 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  55. Westerhof R, Buurman P, Griethuysen V, Ayrza M, Vilela L, Zech W (1999) Aggregation studied by laser diffraction in relation to plowing and liming in the Cerrado region in Brazil. Geoderma 90(3):277–290

  56. Wu QJ, Wang LH, Wu FQ (2016) Effects of structural and depositional crusts on soil erosion on the loess plateau of China. Arid Land Res Manag 30(4):432–444

  57. Xie Y, Lin XJ, Liu YN, Zheng YZ, Liu BY, Zhang GH (2008) Calibration of simulated rainfall and its spatial distribution for trough rainfall simulator. Bull Soil Water Conserv 28(4):1–6 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  58. Xu X M, Zheng F L, Wilson G V, He C, Lu J, Bian F (2018). Comparison of runoff and soil loss in different tillage systems in the Mollisol region of Northeast China. Soil Tillage Res 177:1-11.

  59. Yin SQ, Xie Y, Nearing MA, Guo WL, Zhu ZY (2016) Intra-storm temporal patterns of rainfall in China using huff curves. Transactions ASABE 59(6):1619–1632

  60. Young RA, Onstad CA (1978) Characterization of rill and interrill eroded soil. Transactions ASAE 21(6):1126–1130

  61. Yu XX, Li ZW, Liu QJ, Jing GH (2012) Output characteristics of rainfall runoff phosphorus pollution from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area. Environ Sci 33(8):2644–2651 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  62. Zhang XG, Wang CH, Cheng TT, Li S, Li Y, Zhang YT (2017) Distribution characteristics of erosive rainfall in Yaoxiang small watershed of Shandong province. Sci Soil Water Conserv 15(1):128–133 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  63. Zhao XY, Zhao XX, Luo CB, Xu SJ (2010) Main types and countermeasures of natural disasters in Linyi City. J Linyi Norm Univ 32(3):115–120 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  64. Zheng FL, Tang KL, Zhang CE (1995) The study of rainfall energy effects on rill erosion of slope farmland. Yellow River 7:22–24 (in Chinese with English abstract)

  65. Zheng FL, Bian F, Lu J, Qin C, Xu XM (2016) Effects of rainfall patterns on hillslope erosion with longitudinal ridge in typical black soil region of Northeast China. Transaction of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery 47(2):90–97 (in Chinese with English abstract)

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41301292, 41977067, and 41671277).

Author information

Correspondence to Juan An.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Yi Jun Xu

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

An, J., Zhang, Y. & Wang, Y. Rainstorm pattern effects on the size distribution of soil aggregate in eroded sediment within contour ridge systems. J Soils Sediments (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-019-02561-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rainfall intensity occurring periods
  • Rainfall simulation
  • Soil aggregate loss
  • Storm pattern
  • The contour ridge system