Use of exchangeable and nonexchangeable forms of calcium, magnesium, and potassium in soils without fertilization after successive cultivations with Pinus taeda in southern Brazil
The aim of this study was to quantify the contents and stocks of exchangeable and nonexchangeable fractions of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) after one and three successive Pinus taeda crops without fertilization and to predict the soil supply for further cultivations.
Materials and methods
The soil was analyzed in layers up to 80 cm in two Pinus forests, one at the end of the first cultivation and other at the end of the third successive crop, in a subtropical region in southern Brazil. Stocks of exchangeable and semi-total fractions of K, Ca, and Mg in the soil were calculated, and the potential number of crop rotations of Pinus without fertilization was estimated.
Results and discussion
After three Pinus crops, there was an average reduction of 46.9, 90.8, and 45.5% of exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg fractions respectively. Semi-total Ca content reduced in all depths, and semi-total K contents, in turn, only decreased until 20 cm of depth. The semi-total Mg contents have not been modified over the cultivations. Considering crop management with the export of plant twigs and needles and relying just on the availability of exchangeable Ca, the stocks of these nutrients in the soil would be sufficient for only one more Pinus cultivation, even when considering the absorption of nutrients on an 80-cm soil depth profile.
The management adopted in the region must be modified, replacing the nutrients exported via harvesting, especially Ca. Thus, the establishment of new cultivation of Pinus without fertilization may have its yield impaired, especially by the Ca availability.
KeywordsExchangeable and semi-total fractions Forest fertilization Successive crops Stocks of nutrient in soil
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