Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 91–98 | Cite as

A field experiment on stabilization of Cd in contaminated soils by surface-modified nano-silica (SMNS) and its phyto-availability to corn and wheat

  • Yangyang Wang
  • Yidan Liu
  • Wenhao Zhan
  • Liumin Niu
  • Xueyan Zou
  • Chaosheng Zhang
  • Xinling RuanEmail author
Soils, Sec 1 • Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling • Research Article



Cd-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem. Stabilization is an effective way of in situ remediation for Cd contamination in soils, but there is a lack of information about the influences of the amendments on soil ecosystems and Cd uptake by crops, especially under field conditions. In this study, surface-modified nano-silica (SMNS) was used to stabilize a Cd-contaminated soil under field condition within one year.

Materials and methods

SMNS was mixed with Cd-contaminated soil at the dosage of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1%, respectively. After that, corn and wheat were sown within one year. DTPA extraction and sequential extraction were used to evaluate stabilization efficiency of SMNS to Cd. The influences of SMNS on crop yield, soil enzyme activities, and Cd accumulation in crops were also analyzed.

Results and discussion

The DTPA-extractable Cd in soil was reduced by 61.14% when the dosage of SMNS was 1%. SMNS transferred Cd to more stable fractions, with the organic-bound and residual Cd increased 148.11% and 90.52%, respectively. The addition of SMNS decreased soil dehydrogenase slightly, but its influences on soil urease, catalase, and yields of corn and wheat were negligible. More importantly, at the dosage of 1%, SMNS reduced 42.87% and 47.95% of Cd contents in corn and wheat grains, respectively.


SMNS was effective in reducing the mobility of Cd in contaminated soils. These results suggest that SMNS has a great potential in the remediation of Cd-contaminated agricultural soils.


Agricultural soils Cd contamination Stabilization Surface-modified nano-silica Wheat 


Funding information

This work was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51704093, 21571051); Science and Technology Development Project of Henan Province (181100310600); Open Funding Project of National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering (SYFD180051810K and 614222207041813); and First-Class Disciplines Innovation Team Training Projects in Henan University (2018YLTD16); the Key Project of the Science and Technology Research of Henan Provincial Department of Education (19A610003).

Supplementary material

11368_2019_2416_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.5 mb)
ESM 1. The synthesis process, characterization and Cd adsorption capacity of SMNS (DOC 1506 kb)
11368_2019_2416_MOESM2_ESM.doc (36 kb)
ESM 2. The details of sequential extraction conditions of Cd (DOC 36 kb)
11368_2019_2416_MOESM3_ESM.doc (31 kb)
ESM 3 The influences of SMNS on soil pH (DOC 31 kb)
11368_2019_2416_MOESM4_ESM.doc (189 kb)
ESM 4. The scatter plot and regression equation between Cd in corn (a) and wheat (b) grains and dosage of SMNS (DOC 189 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yangyang Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yidan Liu
    • 2
  • Wenhao Zhan
    • 3
  • Liumin Niu
    • 4
  • Xueyan Zou
    • 4
  • Chaosheng Zhang
    • 5
  • Xinling Ruan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Research Institute of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development & Collaborative Innovation Center on Yellow River Civilization of Henan Province, National Demonstration Center for Environmental and PlanningHenan UniversityKaifengChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, Ministry of EducationHenan UniversityKaifengChina
  3. 3.National Key Laboratory of Human Factors EngineeringChina Astronaut Research and Training CenterBeijingChina
  4. 4.Engineering Research Center for NanomaterialsHenan UniversityKaifengChina
  5. 5.International Network for Environment and Health, School of Geography and Archaeology& Ryan InstituteNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland

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