Two-year fluctuation of Cd bioavailability in a remediated rice field under different water managements
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Based on two consecutive years of field-scale trials, under different water managements, we illustrated the persistence of remediation effect of palygorskite on a Cd-polluted rice field.
Materials and methods
The Cd uptake by a plant, pH and Cd chemical extractability, available P/K, and extractable Zn/Cu in paddy soils were used to evaluate the influence of palygorskite on Cd immobilization and soil fertility index.
Results and discussion
In contrast to the 1st year, at 0–1.5% palygorskite applied dose in soils, 0.025 M HCl–extractable Cd in continuous flooding reduced by 12.1–19.0%, and that in wetting irrigation increased by 10.9–18.9% in the 2nd year (p < 0.05). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure Cd reduction of 3.0–11.4% and increase of 8.9–12.0% were obtained under above-mentioned water managements (p < 0.05). Compared with the 1st year, at different clay additional concentrations, grain Cd in continuous flooding reduced by 7.0–11.3%, and that in wetting irrigation increased by 6.5–10.8% in the 2nd year (p < 0.05). Although trace elements in clay treated soils declined, they had no influence on the grain yield due to a minimum value higher than the critical value of 1.5 mg kg−1 for Zn and 2.0 mg kg−1 for Cu. The available P in continuous flooding took on a maximum increase of 8.2% in the 2nd year (p < 0.05).
Two consecutive years of field-scale in situ demonstration tests revealed that continuous flooding was a preferable water management regime for Cd immobilization using palygorskite in the rice field. There were no remarkable differences in extractable Zn/Cu between 2 years.
KeywordsCd Immobilization remediation Palygorskite Water management
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21177068).
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