Phosphorus desorption from calcareous soils with different initial Olsen-P levels and relation to phosphate fractions
- 28 Downloads
Calcareous soils are characterized by high pH and phosphorus (P) fixation capacity. Increasing application of P fertilizer recently has significantly improved soil P concentration, especially available P (Olsen-P) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) fractions. However, there are few data available on the ability of soils with different initial Olsen-P levels to continuously supply P (i.e., P desorption capacity) to crops without additional P fertilization and on which Pi fraction exerts the greatest influence on P desorption capacity.
Materials and methods
Five soils with different initial Olsen-P levels (0.5, 14.3, 38.4, 55.4, 72.3 mg kg−1, hereafter refer as OP1, OP2, OP3, OP4, and OP5) but similar other soil properties were selected to evaluate the capacity of P desorption and its relationship with Pi fractions. Soil P was sequentially extracted once daily for 16 consecutive days using Olsen solution.
Results and discussion
The content and proportions of dicalcium phosphate fraction (Ca2-P), octacalcium phosphate fraction (Ca8-P), aluminum phosphorus fraction (Al-P), and iron phosphorus fraction (Fe-P) in Pi increased significantly with the increase of initial Olsen-P (P < 0.01). Applied P fertilizer was mostly stored as Ca8-P in the soil. Soil P desorbed reached an equilibrium after 16 extractions for all soils, and P desorption capacity (12–358 mg kg−1) showed a significant linear relationship with initial Olsen-P (P < 0.01), with an increase of 4.2 mg kg−1 desorbed P per 1 mg kg−1 increase of initial Olsen-P. Ca2-P exerted the conclusive effect on P desorption in the first four extractions, but Ca8-P played a more important role in the 16 extractions.
Ca8-P was the greatest potential pool for P desorption after Ca2-P was depleted. P desorption capacity was significantly linearly related to initial Olsen-P (P < 0.01). Different fertilizer use strategies were developed based on P desorption capacity for soils with different initial Olsen-P levels. The present study provided basic data on how to reduce effectively the application amount of chemical P fertilizer.
KeywordsCalcareous soil Desorption capacity Inorganic phosphorus fraction Olsen-P Phosphorus
This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0200301) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41601238).
- China’s Ministry of Agriculture (2015) Action plan for zero increase in application of chemical fertilizer by 2020. http://jiuban.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/tzgg/tz/201503/t20150318_4444765.htm
- Huang S, Ma Y, Bao D, Guo D, Zhang S (2011) Manures behave similar to superphosphate in phosphorus accumulation in long-term field soils. Int J Plant Prod 5(2):1735–6814Google Scholar
- Jiang BF, Gu YC (1989) A suggested fractionation scheme of inorganic phosphorus in calcareous soils. Sci Agric Sin 22(3):58–62 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Lai L, Hao MD, Peng LF (2003) The variation of soil phosphorus of long-term continuous cropping and management on loess plateau. Res Soil Water Conserv 10(1):68–70 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Lin ZA, Xie CT, Zhang ZS, Zhang XY (1996) Phosphorus forms, transformation, and its relation with fertilization in calcareous soil of upland. Soil Fert 6:26–28 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Lu RK (1999) Soil agrochemistry analysis protocols. China Agriculture Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate.. USDA Circ. 939. U.S. Gov. Print Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Poulton PR, Johnston AE, White RP (2013) Plant-available soil phosphorus. Part I: the response of winter wheat and spring barley to Olsen P on a silty clay loam. Soil Use and Management 29(1):4-11Google Scholar
- Shen P (2014) Evolution characteristics and mechanisms of soil available phosphorus in typical croplands under long-term fertilization. PhD thesis. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Beijing, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Shen RF, Jiang BF (1992) Distribution and availability of various forms of inorganic-P in calcareous soils. Acta Pedol Sin 29(1):80–86 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Solomon RI, Saddiq AM, Usman BH (2014) Effects of organic materials on phosphorus forms under submerged condition in the soils of Lake Geriyo irrigation project, Adamawa state, Nigeria. IOSR J Agric Vet Sci 7:11–18Google Scholar
- Tang X (2009) Long-term change of phosphorus in soils under wheat-maize crop rotation in China. PhD thesis, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang YL, He YQ, Li CL, Li P (2010a) Effects of long-term fertilization on sustained P supply capacity of red soil. Acta Pedol Sin 47(3):503–507 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang FS, Chen XP, Chen Q (2009) Fertilization guideline for major crops in China. China Agricultural University Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhong X, Zhao X, Bao H, Li H, Lin Q (2004) The evaluation of phosphorus leaching risk of 23 Chinese soils. I. Leaching criterion. Acta Ecol Sin 24:2275–2280 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhou XY, Xu MG, Wang BR, Cai ZJ, Gilles C (2018) Changes of soil phosphorus fractionation according to pH in red soils of China: an incubation experiment. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 49(7):1–12Google Scholar