Effects of fertilizer type and rate on summer maize grain yield and ammonia volatilization loss in northern China
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In this study, we analyzed the effects of different maize varieties with nitrogen utilization efficiency, fertilizer type, and rate on the ammonia volatilization emission of farmland. Aimed to seek the best matching method to improve grain yield and fertilizer utilization efficiency of summer maize simultaneously.
Materials and methods
In field experiments, we choose two maize varieties with different nitrogen utilization efficiency (Zhengdan958, Z and Lainong14, L) as material. Set four different fertilizer treatments (200 kg N hm−2 inorganic fertilizer (U1), 100 kg N hm−2 inorganic fertilizer (U2), 200 kg N hm−2 organic fertilizer (M1), and 100 kg N hm−2 organic fertilizer (M2) to study their effect on NH3 emission and loss, maize grain yield, and nitrogen accumulation.
Results and discussion
Ammonia volatilization accounted for 8.61–21.68% of applied N. Under the same variety, ammonia volatilization accumulation after fertilization was as follows: U1 > U2 > M1 > M2. Ammonia volatilization rates increased first and then gradually decreased after the fertilization. The ammonia volatilization loss and cumulative loss increased due to increased nitrogen fertilizer application rate. The average nitrogen accumulation and harvest index of 200 kg N hm−2 N treatments were higher than 100 kg N hm−2 N treatments, and the difference between the inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer was not significant. In 2016 and 2017, the average yield of Zhengdan958 was 11,758.79 kg hm−2, which was 15.78% higher than that of Lainong14, and the difference between the two fertilizer types was not significant. The average yield of 200 kg N hm−2 N treatment was 11,959.42 kg hm−2, which was 20.13% higher than those of 100 kg N hm−2 N treatment.
By changing the type of fertilizer, replacing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizer can reduce the loss of ammonia volatilization and promote the synergistic improvement to yield and resource utilization efficiency. Among them, using nitrogen-efficient varieties and using organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer was beneficial to reduce the loss of ammonia volatilization, increase the accumulation of nitrogen, and promote the growth of maize to obtain high yield.
KeywordsAmmonia volatilization Fertilizer type and rate Grain yield Summer maize
This work was supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300106), the National Key Technology Support Program of China (2013BAD07B06-2), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371576), and the Shandong Modern Agricultural Technology & Industry System (SDAIT-02-08).
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