The bio-mitigation of acetochlor in soil using Rhodopseudomonas capsulata in effluent after wastewater treatment

  • Pan Wu
  • Bo CaoEmail author
  • Ying Zhang
  • Wenbin Li
  • Yanling Wang
  • Yuan Wu
  • Ning Li
Soils, Sec 3 • Remediation and Management of Contaminated or Degraded Lands • Research Article



The bio-mitigation of acetochlor and improvement of fertility in soil using Rhodopseudomonas capsulata (R. capsulata) in effluent was investigated in this research.

Materials and methods

Acetochlor content and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were tested using the HPLC method. EthB gene regulation was measured by RT-PCR.

Results and discussion

It was observed that acetochlor was not degraded under the control group. The addition of effluent containing R. capsulata and residual organics degraded acetochlor efficiently and re-mediated soil fertility. Acetochlor mitigation reached 100% after 5 days under the optimal group (2000 mg/L). Interestingly, the acetochlor began to be degraded after day 1 of inoculation. Further research indicated that EthB gene was expressed after the first day of inoculation. Subsequently, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was synthesized to degrade acetochlor under EthB gene regulation. Analysis revealed that EthB and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase were inducible gene expressions and enzyme. The acetochlor as stimulus signal induced EthB expression through signal transduction pathway. This process took 1 day for R. capsulata, as they were ancient bacteria. However, the organics in soil and the control group were deficient, which could not maintain R. capsulata growth for over 1 day. The residual organics in effluent provided sufficient carbon sources and energy for R. capsulata under four effluent groups.


The new method completed the remediation of acetochlor pollution and the improvement of soil fertility and soybean processing wastewater treatment simultaneously, as well as realizing the resource reutilization of wastewater and R. capsulata as sludge.


Acetochlor Effluent EthB R. capsulata Soil biomitigation 


Funding information

The study was supported by the National Nature Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 41625002); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31700432; 31470550; 81500493; 31400386; 51778114); Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2015A030313098); Application Technology Research and Development Projects of Harbin (Grant No. 2016RAXXJ103); and the MOA Modern Agricultural Talents Support Project for valuable financial support. Basic scientific research service fees of the Central University and Dalian Nationalities University (0113-20000101).

Supplementary material

11368_2018_2201_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 12500 kb)


  1. Cycoń M, Wójcik M, Piotrowska-Seget Z (2009) Biodegradation of the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon by Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. and their use in bioremediation of contaminated soil. Chemosphere 76:494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carboneras B, Villaseñor J, Fernandez-Morales FJ (2017) Equationling aerobic biodegradation of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid by mixed-cultures. Bioresour Technol 243:1044–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fenga C, Gangemi S, Giambò F, Tsitsimpikou C (2016) Low-dose occupational exposure to benzene and signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of cellular response to oxidative stress. Life Sci 147(15):67–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. He XF, Wubie AJ, Diao QY, Li W, Xu SF (2014) Biodegradation of neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid by restriction enzyme mediated integration (REMI) generated Trichoderma mutants. Chemosphere 112:526–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hendrix S, Schröder P, Keunen E, Huber C, Cuypers A (2017) Chapter six: molecular and cellular aspects of contaminant toxicity in plants: the importance of sulphur and associated signalling pathways. Adv Bot Res 83:223–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Huang L, Gao X, Liu M, Du G, Guo JS, Ntakirutimana T (2012) Correlation among soil microorganisms, soil enzyme activities, and mitigation rates of pollutants in three constructed wetlands purifying micro-polluted river water. Ecol Eng 46(3):98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaurin A, Cernilogar Z, Lestan D (2018) Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance. Chemosphere 193:726–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kong FY, Wang AJ, Ren HY, Huang LP, Xu MY, Tao HC (2014) Improved dechlorination and mineralization of 4-chlorophenol in a sequential biocathode-bioanode bioelectrochemical system with mixed photosynthetic bacteria. Bioresour Technol 158:32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li LX, Wang MQ, Chen SH, Zhao W, Zhang Y (2016) A urinary metabonomics analysis of long-term effect of acetochlor exposure on rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pestic Biochem Physiol 128:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li Y, Chen Q, Wang CH, Cai S, Huang H, Li SP (2013) Degradation of acetochlor by consortium of two bacterial strains and cloning of a novel amidase gene involved in acetochlor-degrading pathway. Bioresour Technol 148:628–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. López-Aizpún M, Arango-Mora C, Santamaría C, Lasheras E, Elustondo D (2018) Atmospheric ammonia concentration modulates soil enzyme and microbial activity in an oak forest affecting soil. Soil Biol Biochem 116:378–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mujahid MD, Sasikala CH, Ramana CHV (2011) Production of indole-3-acetic acid and related indole derivatives from L-tryptophan by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2. Appl Microbio Biotech 89:1001–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ouchane S, Picaud M, Astier C (1995) A new mutation in the pufL gene responsible for the terbutryn resistance phenotype in Rhodopseudanonas palustris. FEBS Lett 374(1):100–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ponsano EHG, Paulino CZ, Pinto MF (2008) Phototrophic growth of Rubrivivax gelatinosus in poultry slaughterhouse sewage. Bioresour Technol 993:836–3842Google Scholar
  15. Szewczyk R, Soboń A, Słaba M, Długoński J (2015) Mechanism study of alachlor biodegradation by Paecilomyces marquandii with proteomic and metabolomic methods. J Hazard Mater 291:52–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sasikala C, Ramana CV (1997) Biodegradation and metabolism of unusual carbon compounds by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Adv Microb Physiol 39:339–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schimel J, Becerra CA, Blankinship J (2017) Estimating decay dynamics for enzyme activities in soils from different ecosystems. Soil Biol Biochem 114:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Pino JND, Capowiez Y, Mazzia C, Rault M (2018) Soil enzyme dynamics in chlorpyrifos-treated soils under the influence of earthworms. Sci Total Environ 612:1407–1416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh A, Ghoshal N (2013) Impact of herbicide and various soil amendments on soil enzymes activities in a tropical rainfed agroecosystem. Eur J Soil Biol 54:56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang JL, Lou YY, Zhuang XW, Song S, Xu C (2018) Magnetic Pr6O11/SiO2@Fe3O4 particles as the heterogeneous catalyst for the catalytic ozonation of acetochlor: performance and aquatic toxicity. Sep Purif Technol 197:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu P, Li JZ, Wang YL, Liu XS, Du C, Tong QY, Li N (2014) Promoting the growth of Rubrivivax gelatinosus in sewage purification by addition of magnesium ions. Biochem Eng J 91:6–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xie JQ, Zhao L, Liu K, Guo FJ, Liu WP (2018) Enantioselective effects of chiral amide herbicides napropamide, acetochlor and propisochlor: the more efficient R-enantiomer and its environmental friendly. Sci Total Environ 626:860–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xu J, Yang M, Dai JY, Cao H, Xu MQ (2008) Degradation of acetochlor by four microbial communities. Bioresour Technol 99:7797–7802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yuan CY, Chin YP, Weavers LK (2018) Photochemical acetochlor degradation induced by hydroxyl radical in Fe-amended wetland waters: impact of pH and dissolved organic matter. Water Rese 132:52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhu PY, Ma WH, Jia MK, Zhao XR, Huang YP (2016) Comparing the degradation of acetochlor to RhB using BiOBr under visible light: a significantly different rate-catalyst dose relationship. Appl Catal B Environ 181:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology in Chinese Education MinistryNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.School of Environment and ResourcesDalian University of MinzhuDalianChina
  3. 3.Department of AnesthesiologyThe third affiliated hospital of SunYat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations