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Impact of soil organic matter on calcium carbonate equilibrium and forms of Pb in water extracts from Kastanozem complex

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Accounting for ionic strength and ion association, the degree of calculated supersaturation with CaCO3 of gleyic solonetz and molic solonetz soil solution is high. The purpose of the research was to reveal the effect of the water-dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the calcium carbonate equilibrium (CCE) in soil solution, to create a thermodynamic model of carbonate association and complexation with DOM and heavy metals (HMs), and to correct the principal of soil management.

Materials and methods

Object of research—Kastanozem complex of the dry steppe, Rostov Oblast, Russia. The water extraction of soluble salts was made at the water-to soil-ratio 5:1 and analyzed using standard methods. DOM content was determined by Strosser (J Agrobiol 27:49–60, 2010). The soil solution macro-ion equilibrium composition was calculated using ION-2 program (Endovitsky et al. 2009). DOM role in soil solution supersaturation with СаСО3 was assessed, comparing C content in real solution and in identical artificial solution prepared without organic matter. Taking into account the ion association, the molar fractions of free and bound HM ion were calculated using microelement association coefficient, kas(ME). The soil liquid-phase saturation with CaCO3 was characterized by the ratio of the real solubility product (S) to the thermodynamic solubility product (S0): К = S/S0.

Results and discussion

The soil solution supersaturation with CaCO3 was characterized by the product of analytical concentrations (S), equilibrium concentrations [accounting ion activity (SI), ion association (SII), ion association and complexation (SIII)], and the thermodynamic solubility product (S0). To evaluate the role of DOM in soil solution supersaturation with CaCO3, the initial pure Ca (HCO3)2 solution series was prepared. The humic and fulvic acids from the illuvial horizon of gleyic solonetz with concentrations of 20 mg C L−1 and 120 mg C L−1 decreased the CaCO3 precipitation compared with initial soil solution. The release of CaCO3 from soil water extracts containing water-soluble organic matter was 1.2–1.9 times less compared with identical artificial solution not containing organic matter. The HM binding by carbonates is proportional to the DOM content.


In molic solonetz and gleyic solonetz, the neutralization of the soda should be assessed by the soil solution supersaturation with CaCO3. To calculate the degree of HM passivation in soil solution containing DOM, the coefficient of soil solution oversaturation with CaCO3 is proposed. For reducing soil organic matter and DOM mobility and loss from soil, as well as for Pb passivation, intra-soil mechanical processing, intra-soil waste management, and intra-soil watering are proposed.

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Analytical work was carried out on the equipment of Centers for Collective Use of Southern Federal University “High Technology” and “Biotechnology, Biomedical, and Environmental Monitoring.”


This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 16-14-10217).

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Correspondence to Valery P. Kalinichenko.

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Responsible editor: Dong-Mei Zhou

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Kalinichenko, V.P., Glinushkin, A.P., Sokolov, M.S. et al. Impact of soil organic matter on calcium carbonate equilibrium and forms of Pb in water extracts from Kastanozem complex. J Soils Sediments 19, 2717–2728 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2123-z

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  • CaCO3 supersaturation
  • Calcium carbonate equilibrium
  • Heavy metals
  • Intra-soil waste management
  • Ion complexation
  • Soil solution
  • Soil organic matter