Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 73–80 | Cite as

Effects of different green manure treatments on soil apparent N and P balance under a 34-year double-rice cropping system

  • Xi Hong
  • Chao Ma
  • Jusheng Gao
  • Shiming Su
  • Tao Li
  • Zunchang Luo
  • Ran Duan
  • Yanan Wang
  • Lingyu Bai
  • Xibai ZengEmail author
Soils, Sec 1 • Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling • Research Article



Although green manure rotation is often used to promote soil fertility and crop yield, the effects of this management practice on the nitrogen or phosphorus balance and the relationship between nutrient balance and the increase in soil nutrients have not been systematically studied.

Materials and methods

We investigated the apparent nitrogen and phosphorus balances and their associations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus increases, respectively, in a 34-year-old experimental site with various green manures and rice rotations using linear and logistic models. Cropping treatments included a rice-rice-winter fallow treatment as a control (RRW) and three green manure rotation treatments: rice-rice-ryegrass (RRR), rice-rice-oil rape (RRO), and rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (RRC).

Results and discussion

We found that apparent nitrogen and phosphorus balances of RRR, RRO, and RRC were 164, 162, and 149 kg hm−2, which were all significantly lower than 200 kg hm−2 of RRW (P < 0.05). Moreover, the optimal fitted model of the relationship between cumulative nutrient balance and the increase in soil nutrients was different among treatments. Specifically, the correlation coefficients of cumulative nitrogen balance and soil nitrogen increase of RRR, RRO, and RRC in the linear model (0.49, 0.80, and 0.63) were all significantly lower than in the logistic model (0.81, 0.90, and 0.82). The correlation coefficients of cumulative phosphorus balance and increase in soil phosphorus of RRW in the linear model (0.81) were significantly lower than in the logistic model (0.91). Parameter analysis of the optimal fitted model revealed that RRC would increase the storage capacity of soil nitrogen and decrease the rate of soil phosphorus accumulation.


Our results suggested that long-term rice-rice-green manure rotation could significantly change the apparent nitrogen and phosphorus balance and their association with soil nitrogen and phosphorus content, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of green manure rotation in an agro-ecological environment and soil fertility in a double rice cropping system in red paddy soil.


Long-term field experiment Nitrogen and phosphorus balance Red paddy soil Rice-rice-green manure rotation Soil nitrogen and phosphorus increases 



This study was supported by the State Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFD0300902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 41671308, NO. 31700452).

Supplementary material

11368_2018_2049_MOESM1_ESM.docx (216 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 216 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xi Hong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Ma
    • 3
  • Jusheng Gao
    • 4
  • Shiming Su
    • 5
  • Tao Li
    • 5
  • Zunchang Luo
    • 2
  • Ran Duan
    • 5
  • Yanan Wang
    • 5
  • Lingyu Bai
    • 5
  • Xibai Zeng
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Resource and EnvironmentHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan ProvinceChangshaChina
  3. 3.Anhui Province Key Lab of Farmland Ecological Conservation and Pollution Prevention, School of Resources and EnvironmentAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  4. 4.Qiyang Agro-ecosystem of National Field Experimental Station, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional PlanningChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesQiYangChina
  5. 5.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agro-EnvironmentMinistry of Agriculture of ChinaBeijingChina

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