Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 467–477 | Cite as

Effects of sheet and rill erosion on soil aggregates and organic carbon losses for a Mollisol hillslope under rainfall simulation

  • Yiliang Jiang
  • Fenli ZhengEmail author
  • Leilei Wen
  • Hai-ou Shen
Sediments, Sec 3 • Hillslope and River Basin Sediment Dynamics • Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

Characterizations of soil aggregates and soil organic carbon (SOC) losses affected by different water erosion patterns at the hillslope scale are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify how sheet and rill erosion affect soil aggregates and soil organic carbon losses for a Mollisol hillslope in Northeast China under indoor simulated rainfall.

Materials and methods

The soil used in this study was a Mollisol (USDA Taxonomy), collected from a maize field (0–20 cm depth) in Northeast China. A soil pan with dimensions 8 m long, 1.5 m wide and 0.6 m deep was subjected to rainfall intensities of 50 and 100 mm h−1. The experimental treatments included sheet erosion dominated (SED) and rill erosion dominated (RED) treatments. Runoff with sediment samples was collected during each experimental run, and then the samples were separated into six aggregate fractions (0–0.25, 0.25–0.5, 0.5–1, 1–2, 2–5, > 5 mm) to determine the soil aggregate and SOC losses.

Results and discussion

At rainfall intensities of 50 and 100 mm h−1, soil losses from the RED treatment were 1.4 and 3.5 times higher than those from the SED treatment, and SOC losses were 1.7 and 3.8 times greater than those from the SED treatment, respectively. However, the SOC enrichment ratio in sediment from the SED treatment was 1.15 on average and higher than that from the RED treatment. Furthermore, the loss of < 0.25 mm aggregates occupied 41.1 to 73.1% of the total sediment aggregates for the SED treatment, whereas the loss of > 0.25 mm aggregates occupied 53.2 to 67.3% of the total sediment aggregates for the RED treatment. For the organic carbon loss among the six aggregate fractions, the loss of 0–0.25 mm aggregate organic carbon dominated for both treatments. When rainfall intensity increased from 50 to 100 mm h−1, aggregate organic carbon loss increased from 1.04 to 5.87 times for six aggregate fractions under the SED treatment, whereas the loss increased from 3.82 to 27.84 times for six aggregate fractions under the RED treatment.

Conclusions

This study highlights the effects of sheet and rill erosion on soil and carbon losses at the hillslope scale, and further study should quantify the effects of erosion patterns on SOC loss at a larger scale to accurately estimate agricultural ecosystem carbon flux.

Keywords

Enrichment ratio Mollisol of Northeast China Rill erosion Sheet erosion Soil aggregate Soil organic carbon 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We appreciate the suggestions of the anonymous reviewers and the editor.

Funding information

This study was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant number 2016YFE0202900), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41571263).

References

  1. An J, Zheng FL, Lu J, Li GF (2012) Investigating the role of raindrop impact on hydrodynamic mechanism of soil erosion under simulated rainfall conditions. Soil Sci 177(8):517–526.  https://doi.org/10.1097/SS.0b013e3182639de1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong SM, Stein OR (1996) Eroded aggregate size distributions from disturbed lands. Trans ASAE 39:137–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asadi H, Ghadiri H, Rose CW, Yu B, Hussein J (2007) An investigation of flow-driven soil erosion processes at low streampowers. J Hydrol 342:134–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.05.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bajracharya RM, Lal R, Kimble JM (2000) Diurnal and seasonal CO(2)-C flux from soil as related to erosion phases in central Ohio. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:286–293.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.641286x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bavel CHMV (1949) Mean weight-diameter of soil aggregates as a statistical index of aggregation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 14:20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryan RB (2000) Soil erodibility and processes of water erosion on hillslope. Geomorphology 32:385–415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00105-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Celik I (2005) Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil Till Res 83:270–277.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng SL, Fang HJ, Zhu TH, Zheng JJ, Yang XM, Zhang XP, Yu GR (2010) Effects of soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon dynamics at a sloping field in Black Soil region, Northeast China. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:521–529.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2010.00492.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Foster GR, Wischmeier WH (1974) Evaluating irregular slopes for soil loss prediction. Trans ASAE 17:305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardner WR (1956) Representation of soil aggregate-size distribution by a logarithmic-normal distribution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 20:151–153.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1956.03615995002000020003x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hemelryck HV, Fiener P, Van Oost K, Govers G, Merckx R (2010) The effect of soil redistribution on soil organic carbon: an experimental study. Biogeosciences 7:3971–3986.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-3971-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang L, Wang CY, Tan WF, Hu HQ, Cai CF, Wang MK (2010) Distribution of organic matter in aggregates of eroded Ultisols, Central China. Soil Till Res 108:59–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Janeau JL, Gillard LC, Grellier S, Jouquet P, Le Thi PQ, Luu TNM, Ngo QA, Orange D, Pham DR, Tran DT, Tran SH, Trinh AD, Valentin C, Rochelle-Newall E (2014) Soil erosion, dissolved organic carbon and nutrient losses under different land use systems in a small catchment in northern Vietnam. Agr Water Manage 146:314–323.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jin K, Cornelis WM, Gabriels D, Baert M, Wu HJ, Schiettecatte W, Cai DX, De NS, Jin JY, Hartmann R, Hofman G (2009) Residue cover and rainfall intensity effects on runoff soil organic carbon losses. Catena 78:81–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2009.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirkels FMSA, Cammeraat LH, Kuhn NJ (2014) The fate of soil organic carbon upon erosion, transport and deposition in agricultural landscapes—a review of different concepts. Geomorphology 226:94–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.07.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kisic I, Basic F, Nestroy O, Mesic M, Butorac A (2002) Chemical properties of eroded soil material. J Agron Crop Sci 188:323–334.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037X.2002.00571.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuhn NJ, Hoffmann T, Schwanghart W, Dotterweich M (2009) Agricultural soil erosion and global carbon cycle: controversy over? Earth Surf Process Landf 34:1033–1038Google Scholar
  18. Lal R (1976) Soil erosion problems on Alfisols in western Nigeria and their control. IITA, Monograph 1, Ibandan, Nigeria, p 208Google Scholar
  19. Lal R (2003) Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environ Int 29:437–450.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00192-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Le Bissonnais Y (1996) Aggregate stability and assessment of soil crustability and erodibility. 1. Theory and methodology. Eur J Soil Sci 47:25–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le Bissonnais Y, Arrouays D (1997) Aggregate stability and assessment of soil crustability and erodibility. 2. Application to humic loamy soils with various organic carbon contents. Eur J Soil Sci 48:39–48.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1997.tb00183.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu G, Xiao H, Liu PL, Zhang Q, Zhang JQ (2016) An improved method for tracing soil erosion using rare earth elements. J Sediment Res 16:1670–1679Google Scholar
  23. Loch RJ, Donnollan TE (1983) Field rainfall simulator studies on two clay soils of the darling downs, Queensland. II. Aggregate breakdown, sediment properties and soil erodibility. Aus J Soil Res 47:107–111Google Scholar
  24. Lowrance R, Richard RG (1988) Carbon movement in runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall conditions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 52:1445–1448.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1988.03615995005200050045x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ma W, Li Z, Ding K, Huang J, Nie X, Zeng G, Wang S, Liu G (2014) Effect of soil erosion on dissolved organic carbon redistribution in subtropical red soil under rainfall simulation. Geomorphology 226:217–225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maïga-Yaleu S, Guiguemde I, Yacouba H, Karambiri H, Ribolzi O, Bary A, Ouedraogo R, Chaplot V (2013) Soil crusting impact on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion. Catena 107:26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Massey HF, Jackson ML (1952) Selective erosion of soil fertility constituents. Soil Sci Soc Am J 16:353–356.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1952.03615995001600040008x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mazurak AP (1950) Effect of gaseous phase on water-stable synthetic aggregate. Soil Sci 69:135–148.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195002000-00005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ministry of Water Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering (2010) Soil loss control and ecological security in China: the northeast black soil volume. The Science Press, Beijing, pp 41-55, 209–230 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Morgan PRC (2005) Soil erosion and conservation, 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, p 304Google Scholar
  31. Moss AJ, Walker PH, Hutka J (1979) Raindrop-stimulated transportation in shallow water flows: an experimental study. Sediment Geol 22:165–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-0738(79)90051-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mueller-Nedebock D, Chivenge P, Chaplot V (2016) Selective organic carbon losses from soils by sheet erosion and main controls. Earth Surf Process Landfrom 41:1399–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nadeu E, de Vente J, Martinez-Mena M, Boix-Fayos C (2011) Exploring particle size distribution and organic carbons pools mobilized by different erosion processes at the catchment scales. J Soils Sediments 11:667–678.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-011-0348-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Palis RG, Ghandiri H, Rose CW, Saffigna PG (1997) Soil erosion and nutrient loss. 3. Changes in the enrichment ratio of total nitrogen and organic carbon under rainfall detachment and entrainment. Aust J Soil Res 35:891–905.  https://doi.org/10.1071/S92060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Polyakov VO, Lal R (2004) Soil erosion and carbon dynamics under simulated rainfall. Soil Sci 169:590–599.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ss.0000138414.84427.40 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Proffitt APB, Rose CW (1991) Soil erosion processes: II. Settling velocity characteristics of eroded sediment. Aust J Soil Res 29:685–695.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9910685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Proffitt APB, Rose CW, Lovell CJ (1993) Settling velocity characteristic of sediment detached from a soil surface by raindrop impact. Catena 20:27–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0341-8162(93)90027-M CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Puustinen M, Koskiaho J, Peltonen K (2005) Influence of cultivation methods on suspended solids and phosphorus concentrations in surface runoff on clayey sloped fields in boreal climate. Agric Eco Environ 105:565–579.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rose CW, Yu B, Ghadiri H, Asadi H, Parlange JY, Hogarth WL, Hussein J (2007) Dynamic erosion of soil in steady sheet flow. J Hydrol 333:449–458.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.09.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rozanov BG, Targulian V, Orlov DS, Turner BL, Clark WC, Kates RW, Richards JF, Mathews JT, Meyer WB (1993) The earth as transformed by humans action: global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 203–214Google Scholar
  41. Schiettecatte W, Gabriels D, Cornelis WM, Hofman G (2008a) Enrichment of organic carbon in sediment transport by interrill and rill erosion processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schiettecatte W, Gabriels D, Cornelis WM, Hofman G (2008b) Impact of deposition on the enrichment of organic carbon in eroded sediment. Catena 72:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schimel DS, House JI, Hibbard KA (2001) Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 414:169–172.  https://doi.org/10.1038/35102500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shi ZH, Fang NF, Wu FZ, Wang L, Yue BJ, Wu GL (2012) Soil erosion processes and sediment sorting associated with transport mechanisms on steep slopes. J Hydrol 454:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Six J, Bossuyt H, Degryze S, Denef K (2004) A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil Till Res 79:7–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Six J, Elliott ET, Paustian K (1999) Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1350–1358.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1999.6351350x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Six J, Paustian K, Elliott ET, Combrink C (2000) Soil structure and organic matter: I Distribution of aggregate-size classes and aggregate-associated carbon. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:681–689.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.642681x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stallard RF (1998) Terrestrial sedimentation and the carbon cycle: coupling weathering and erosion to carbon burial. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 12:231–257.  https://doi.org/10.1029/98GB00741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Starr GC, Lal R, Malone R, Hothem D, Owens L, Kimble J (2000) Modeling soil carbon transported by water erosion processes. Land Degra Devel 11:83–91.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(200001/02)11:1<83::AID-LDR370>3.0.CO;2-W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sutherland RA, Watung RL, El-Swaify SA (1996) Splash transport of organic carbon and associated concentration and mass enrichment ratios for an Oxisol, Hawai’i. Earth Surf Process Landform 21:1145–1162.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199612)21:12<1145::AID-ESP657>3.0.CO;2-H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tans PP, Fung IY, Takahashi T (1990) Observational contrains on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Science 247:1431–1438.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.247.4949.1431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tiessen H, Stewart JWB, Betany JR (1982) Cultivation effects on the amount and concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in grassland soils. Agron J 74:831–834.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1982.00021962007400050015x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tisdall JM, Oades JM (1982) Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soils. Soil Sci 33:141–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Van Oost K, Quine TA, Govers G (2007) The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the global carbon cycle. Science 318:626–629.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1145724 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wagner S, Cattle SR, Scholten T (2007) Soil-aggregate formation as influenced by clay content and organic-matter amendment. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 170:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wan Y, El-Swaify SA (1998) Characterizing interrill sediment size by partitioning splash and wash processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:430–437.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200020020x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang B, Zheng FL, Romkens M, Darboux F (2013) Soil erodibility for water erosion: a perspective and Chinese experiences. Geomorphology 187:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang WJ, Zhang SW, Deng RX (2011) Gully status and relationship with landscape pattern in black soil area of Northeast China. Trans Chin Soc Agri Eng 27:192–198 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  60. Wang X, Cammeraat ELH, Cerli C, Kalbitz K (2014) Soil aggregation and the stabilization of organic carbon as affected by erosion and deposition. Soil Biol Biochem 72:55–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wei JB, Xiao DN (2005) Landscape pattern and its functioning after ecological reconstruction in black soil region of northeast China. Chin J Appl Ecol 16:1699–1705 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. Wu FZ, Shi ZH, Yue BJ, Wang L (2012) Particle characteristics of sediment in erosion on hillsople. Acta Pedol Sin 49(06):1235–1240 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  63. Young RA, Onstad CA (1982) Erosion characteristics of three northwest soils. Trans ASAE 25(2):366–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang JH, Quine TA, Ni SJ, Ge FL (2006a) Stocks and dynamics of SOC in relation to soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion. Glob Chang Biol 12:1834–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhang XP, Liang AZ, Shen Y (2006b) Erosion characteristics of black soils in Northeast China. Sci Geogr Sin 26:687–692 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Zheng FL, He XB, Gao XT, Zhang C, Tang KL (2005) Effects of erosion patterns on nutrient loss following deforestation on the Loess Plateau of China. Agric Eco Environ 108:85–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhou PH, Zhang XD, Tang KL (2000) Simulation test hall rainfall device State Key Laboratory of soil erosion in Loess Plateau soil erosion and dryland agriculture. Bull Soil Water Cons 20:27–30 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming in the Loess PlateauNorthwest A & F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS & MWRYanglingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Resources and EnvironmentNorthwest A & F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations