Historical sediment mercury deposition for select South Dakota, USA, lakes: implications for watershed transport and flooding
Select South Dakota, USA water bodies, including both natural lakes and man-made impoundments, were sampled and analyzed to assess mercury (Hg) dynamics and historical patterns of total Hg deposition.
Materials and methods
Sediment cores were collected from seven South Dakota lakes. Mercury concentrations and flux profiles were determined using lead (210Pb) dating and sedimentation rates.
Results and discussion
Most upper lake sediments contained variable heavy metal concentrations, but became more consistent with depth and age. Five of the seven lakes exhibited Hg accumulation fluxes that peaked between 1920 and 1960, while the remaining two lakes exhibited recent (1995–2009) Hg flux spikes. Historical sediment accumulation rates and Hg flux profiles demonstrate similar peak and stabilized values. Mercury in the sampled South Dakota lakes appears to emanate from watershed transport due to erosion from agricultural land use common to the Northern Great Plains.
For sampled South Dakota lakes, watershed inputs are more significant sources of Hg than atmospheric deposition.
KeywordsFlux Hg Lake radiometric dating Mercury Sediment
We thank Aaron Larson and Robert Smith of South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for their assistance with data collection. This article is dedicated to the memory of Gene Stueven (South Dakota DENR) who assisted with the initiation of this study. This research was supported by grants from South Dakota DENR and United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 8. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies. The United States Geological Survey South Dakota Coop Unit is jointly supported by the US Geological Survey, South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, South Dakota State University, and the Wildlife Management Institute. Any use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the United States Government.
- APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Birru G (2016) Spatial variability analysis and reclamation of saline-sodic soils in the northern Great Plains. Doctoral Dissertation, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SDGoogle Scholar
- Bond JJ, Umberger DE (1979) Technical and economic causes of productivity changes in U.S. wheat production 1949–1976. In: USDA (ed) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Science and Education Administration, Washington, DC, pp 102Google Scholar
- Dean WE (1974) Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition; comparison with other methods. J Sed Res 44:242–248Google Scholar
- Engstrom D, Swain E, Henning T, Brigham M, Brezonik P (1994) Atomspheric mercury deposition to lakes and watersheds - a quantitative reconstruction from multiple sediment cores. In: Baker LA (ed) Advances in chemistry series: Environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs. Advances in Chemistry Series): American Chemical Society, vol 237, pp 33–66Google Scholar
- EPA (2010) Laws and Regulations. http://www.epa.gov/mercury/regs.htm. Accessed August 20, 2014
- Gilbertson JP (1995) Glaciers in South Dakota. In: Lehr JD (ed) Vermillion, SD: South Dakota Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
- Guy HP (1969) Laboratory theory and methods for sediment analysis. In: Laboratory analysis (Vol. TWRI 5-C1, pp. 64, Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Vol. TWRI 5). USGS, Arlington, VAGoogle Scholar
- Kharel TP (2016) Soil salinity study in the northern Great Plains sodium affected soil. Doctoral Dissertation, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SDGoogle Scholar
- Lan B, Zhang D, Yang Y (2018) Lacustrine sediment chronology defined by 137Cs, 210Pb and 14C and the hydrological evolution of Lake Ailike during 1901-2013, northern Xinjiang, China. Can Underwrit 161:104–112Google Scholar
- Lane EW, Koelzer VA (1943) Density of sediments deposited in reservoirs. Federal Interagency Sedimentation Project, Iowa City, Iowa 237:33–66Google Scholar
- NASS (2014) CropScape - Cropland data layer. In USDA (ed). http://nassgeodata.gmu.edu/CropScape/
- Climate at a Glance (2014) National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/. Accessed August 20, 2014
- Historical Palmer Drought Indices (2014) National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/historical-palmers.php. Accessed August 19, 2014
- NOAA (2014) Summary of Historic Floods and Flash Floods. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/unr/?n=history. Accessed August 22, 2014
- NRCS (2017) 2017 South Dakota cropping systems inventory. United States Natural Resources and Conservation Service, pp 12Google Scholar
- Owen RK (2015) Spatial variability of saline and sodic soils in the Black Glaciated Region of the northern Great Plains, USA. Masters Thesis, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SDGoogle Scholar
- Robbins J (1985) Great Lakes regional fallout source functions (NOAA technical memorandum ERL GLERL; 56, Vol. Accessed from http://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn4392306). Ann Arbor, MI: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
- SDDENR (2015) South Dakota mercury total maximum daily load. Pierre, SD: South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SDDENR), pp 149Google Scholar
- SDGS (2014) South Dakota geology. http://www.sdgs.usd.edu/geologyofsd/geosd.html. Accessed August 20, 2014
- Singleton AA, Schmidt AH, Bierman PR, Rood DH, Neilson TB, Greene ES, Bower JA, Perdrial N (2017) Effects of grain size, mineralogy, and acid-extractable grain coatings on the distribution of the fallout radionuclides 7Be, 10Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb in river sediment. Geochim Et Cosmo Acta 197:71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith A, Abuzeineh AA, Chumchal MM, Bonner TH, Nowlin WH (2010) Mercury contamination of the fish community of a semi-arid and arid river system: spatial variation and the influence of environmental gradients. Env ToxChem 29:1762–1772Google Scholar
- USACE (2007) Environmental assessment: effects of the NY/NJ Harbor deepening project on the remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Newark Bay study area. USACE, New York Division, New York, p 124Google Scholar
- USGS (1995) Floods in South Dakota, spring 1995. United States Department of the Interior, pp 4Google Scholar
- USGS (2014) Mineral resources on-line spatial data. http://mrdata.usgs.gov/. Accessed August 20, 2014
- USGS (2018) Water Watch. http://waterwatch.usgs.gov. Accessed January 12, 2018