Effects of different fertilization regimes on nitrogen and phosphorus losses by surface runoff and bacterial community in a vegetable soil
- 19 Downloads
Vegetables are major economic crops in China. Their cultivation usually involves high fertilizer application rates leading to significant losses of N and P to the wider environment, resulting in water contamination and low nutrient use efficiency. Hence, it is a matter of urgency to understand the mechanisms and factors that affect N and P losses in vegetable production systems in order to develop optimum fertilization regimes.
Materials and methods
Different fertilization regimes were applied in a long-term chili (Capsicum spp. L.) production soil to study the effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) runoff losses, microbial biomass, microbial community, and crop yields. Three fertilization regimes were implemented: control (no fertilizer; CK), farmer’s fertilization practice (FFP), and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM). A fixed collection device was used to quantify the total volume of water output after each precipitation event. All water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N), total phosphorus (TP), and available phosphorus (AP). Soil samples were collected for analysis of the physicochemical properties and for DNA extraction after chili harvest. High-throughput sequencing was used to further investigate the relationship between the microbial community and nutrient losses.
Results and discussion
The SSNM fertilizer regime resulted in a 23.3% yield increase and enhanced agronomic N use efficiency from 11.87 to 15.67% compared with the FFP treatment. Soil available nutrients (i.e., AN and AP) and ATP content increased significantly after SSNM implementation. Under the SSNM regime, N losses decreased by 25.8% compared with FFP but did not lead to significantly different P losses. High-throughput sequencing results showed that each treatment formed a unique microbial community structure. VPA results revealed that the microbial community structure was mainly (50.56%) affected by the interactions between N and P. Mantel results indicated that the soil properties that significantly affected soil microbial community structure followed the order: AP, AK, and salinity.
Our study has demonstrated that SSNM not only generates lower N losses but also provides higher contents of soil available nutrients and plant yield, which were mainly attributed to the multiple top dressings and meeting of the plants’ demand with adequate nutrient supplies. The combined data showed that the microbial community differentiation between the different fertilizer regimes was mainly linked to the interactions between N and P in the soil.
KeywordsFertilization High-throughput sequencing Microorganism Nitrogen Phosphorus Surface runoff
- Broadhurst MJ, Ardeshir A, Kanwar B, Mirpuri J, Gundra UM, Leung JM, Wiens KE, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Kim CC, Yarovinsky F, Lerche NW, McCune JM, Loke P (2012) Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon. PLoS Pathog 8(11):e1003000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dobermann A, Witt C, Abdulrachman S, Gines HC, Nagarajan R, Son TT, Tan PS, Wang GH, Chien NV, Thoa V, Phung CV, Stalin P, Muthukrishnan P, Ravi V, Babu M, Simbahan GC, Adviento M (2003) Soil fertility and indigenous nutrient supply in irrigated rice domains of Asia. Agron J 95:913–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). United Nations (2011) FAO statistical databases.Google Scholar
- Liang XQ, Chen YX, Nie ZY, Ye YS, Liu J, Tian GM, Wang GH, Tuong TP (2013) Mitigation of nutrient losses via surface runoff from rice cropping systems with alternate wetting and drying irrigation and site-specific nutrient management practices. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6980–6991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nemergut DR, Townsend AR, Sattin SR, Freeman KR, Fierer N, Neff JC, Bowman WD, Schadt CW, Weintraub MN, Schmidt SK (2008) The effects of chronic nitrogen fertilization on alpine tundra soil microbial communities: implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling. Environ Microbiol 10:3093–3105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Ni T, Li J, Lu Q, Fang Z, Huang Q, Zhang R, Li R, Shen B, Shen Q (2016) Effects of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer with reduced chemical fertilizer application on crop yields, soil biological activity and bacterial community structure in a rice-wheat cropping system. Appl Soil Ecol 99:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zheng XH, Han SH, Huang Y, Wang YS, Wang MX (2004) Re-quantifying the emission factors based on field measurements and estimating the direct N(2)O emission from Chinese croplands. Global Biogeochem Cy 18(2). https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002167