Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 586–598 | Cite as

Spatial-temporal dynamics of soil chloride distribution in a coastal saline plain: implication for ocean and climate influences

  • Shaofeng YanEmail author
  • Lu Zhai
  • Qiuliang Deng
  • Defeng Pan
  • Shikai Gao
  • Chaowang Zou
Soils, Sec 5 • Soil and Landscape Ecology • Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

Restoration of saline soil in coastal areas requires detailed understanding of spatial and temporal soil salt distribution and how the distribution is affected by different environmental factors (e.g., precipitation and evaporation), particularly under the influence of salt water intrusion. Because of the high accuracy of chloride measurement, and chloride as a common ion in soil salt, we used soil chloride as a proxy of soil salt in a coastal area of southeastern China.

Materials and methods

The study sites, without confounding influences from human activities and vegetation cover, provide a unique opportunity to estimate the influence of the ocean and climatic factors on soil chloride. Our study represents for the first time the use of daily measured precipitation and evaporation data to quantify these two climatic factors on soil chloride content. Our study includes three sites S1, S2, and S3 which have different distances to the ocean that can indicate the sea intrusion effect. Soil chloride was measured at six soil depths and three times a month from January 2013 to December 2014. We used a general linear model to describe the soil chloride content as a function of distance from the coast, precipitation, evaporation, and soil layer, and the interactions of these factors.

Results and discussion

We detected significant main factors including distance to ocean, soil layer, precipitation, and evaporation. The closer site to the ocean and deeper soil layer have a higher chloride content. Precipitation has a strong negative effect, particularly in spring and summer, on the soil chloride content, because of its dilution effect. Evaporation has limited effect on the soil chloride content, because its uptaking effect may be offset by precipitation.

Conclusions

The sea intrusion influence can result in degraded soil quality, and this influence may be complicated by the combined effect of precipitation and evaporation. We found that soil chloride in a coastal ecosystem may be highly affected by the salt water intrusion according to the site and layer effects in the results. Chloride is highly mobile and soluble which makes soil chloride highly sensitive to the change of sea intrusion, precipitation, and evaporation.

Keywords

Evaporation Precipitation Saline soil Salt water intrusion Soil chloride 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Key Program granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 51479063). We thank Jiangsu Province Hydrology and Water Resources Investigation Bureau for providing climate data.

References

  1. Alcalá FJ, Custodio E (2008) Atmospheric chloride deposition in continental Spain. Hydrol Process 22(18):3636–3650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bresciani E, Ordens CM, Werner AD, Batelaan O, Guan H, Post V (2014) Spatial variability of chloride deposition in a vegetated coastal area: implications for groundwater recharge estimation. J Hydrol 519:1177–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brock WA (2009) Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 461(7260):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dang Y, Routley R, McDonald M, Dalal R, Singh D, Orange D, Mann M (2006) Subsoil constraints in Vertosols: crop water use, nutrient concentration, and grain yields of bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, chickpea, and canola. Crop Pasture Sci 57(9):983–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dang Y et al (2008) High subsoil chloride concentrations reduce soil water extraction and crop yield on Vertosols in north-eastern Australia. Crop Pasture Sci 59(4):321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eriksson E, Khunakasem V (1969) Chloride concentration in groundwater, recharge rate and rate of deposition of chloride in the Israel Coastal Plain. J Hydrol 7(2):178–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ewe SML, Sternberg LDSL (2007) Water uptake patterns of an invasive exotic plant in coastal saline habitats. J Coast Res 23(1):255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fayrap A, Koç C (2012) Comparison of drainage water quality and soil salinity in irrigated areas with surface and subsurface drainage systems. Agric Res 1(3):280–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Field A (2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage publications, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  10. Greaver TL, Sternberg LS (2010) Decreased precipitation exacerbates the effects of sea level on coastal dune ecosystems in open ocean islands. Glob Chang Biol 16(6):1860–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guan H, Love AJ, Simmons CT, Kayaalp AS (2009) Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 6(5):5851–5880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gustafsson ME, Larsson EH (2000) Spatial and temporal patterns of chloride deposition in Southern Sweden. Water Air Soil Pollut 124(3–4):345–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hay CC, Morrow E, Kopp RE, Mitrovica JX (2015) Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise. Nature 517(7535):481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hewitt EJ, Smith TA (1974) Plant mineral nutrition. English Universities Press Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang YY, Jiang ZP, Liu B, Chen GF (2008) Effects of long-term application of chloride-bearing fertilizers on sugarcane and accumulated chlorine in soils. Guangxi Agric Sci 39(2):182–186Google Scholar
  16. Johansson E, Ebenå G, Sandén P, Svensson T, Öberg G (2001) Organic and inorganic chlorine in Swedish spruce forest soil: influence of nitrogen. Geoderma 101(3):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johansson E, Sandén P, Öberg G (2003) Spatial patterns of organic chlorine and chloride in Swedish forest soil. Chemosphere 52(2):391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Junge CE, Gustafson P (1957) On the distribution of sea salt over the United States and its removal by precipitation. Tellus 9(2):164–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kapinus E, Revelsky I, Ulogov V, Lyalikov YA (2004) Simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate in aqueous solutions at 10− 9 to 10− 8% level by ion chromatography. J Chromatogr B 800(1):321–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meng Q, Yang J, Yao R, Liu G (2013) Soil quality in east coastal region of China as related to different land use types. J Soils Sediments 13(4):664–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Millero FJ, Feistel R, Wright DG, Mcdougall TJ (2008) The composition of standard seawater and the definition of the reference-composition salinity scale. Deep-Sea Res 55(1):50–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neter J, Kutner MH, Nachtsheim CJ, Wasserman W (1996) Applied linear statistical models, vol 4. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  23. Nicholls RJ, Cazenave A (2010) Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science 328(5985):1517–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Öberg G (1998) Chloride and organic chlorine in soil. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 26(3):137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ott RL, Longnecker MT (2008) An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis. Cengage Learning, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Pan F, Ma J, Zhou X, Edmunds WM, Gates GB (2013) Geostatistical characterization of soil moisture and chloride distribution in deep vadose profiles of the Badain Jaran Desert, Northwestern China. Environ Earth Sci 70(3):977–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. AIBS Bull 120(3):290Google Scholar
  28. Ritzema HP, Satyanarayana TV, Raman S, Boonstra J (2008) Subsurface drainage to combat waterlogging and salinity in irrigated lands in India: lessons learned in farmers’ fields. Agric Water Manag 95(3):179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sall J, Lehman A, Stephens ML, Creighton L (2012) JMP start statistics: a guide to statistics and data analysis using JMP. SAS Institute, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  30. Sharma ML, Hughes MW (1985) Groundwater recharge estimation using chloride, deuterium and oxygen-18 profiles in the deep coastal sands of Western Australia. J Hydrol 81(1):93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Staudhammer CL, Jokela EJ, Martin TA (2009) Competition dynamics in pure- versus mixed-family stands of loblolly and slash pine in the southeastern United States. Can J For Res 39(2):396–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (2012) Aquatic chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters, vol 126. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  33. Taylor RG et al (2013) Ground water and climate change. Nat Clim Chang 3(4):322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD (1985) Soil fertility and fertilizers. Collier Macmillan Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Ulrich B (1983) Interaction of forest canopies with atmospheric constituents: so 2, alkali and earth alkali cations and chloride. In. Springer Netherlands, Berlin, pp 33–45Google Scholar
  36. Wang J, Li R, Guo Y, Qin P, Sun S (2006) The flux of methyl chloride along an elevational gradient of a coastal salt marsh, eastern China. Atmos Environ 40(34):6592–6605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang S, Song X, Wang Q, Xiao G, Wang Z, Liu X, Wang P (2012) Shallow groundwater dynamics and origin of salinity at two sites in salinated and water-deficient region of North China Plain, China. Environ Earth Sci 66(3):729–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Werner AD et al (2013) Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management: recent advances and future challenges. Adv Water Resour 51(1):3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. White PJ, Broadley MR (2001) Chloride in soils and its uptake and movement within the plant: a review. Ann Bot-London 88(6):967–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan S-F, Yu S-E, Wu Y-B, Pan D-F, She D-L, Ji J (2015) Seasonal variations in groundwater level and salinity in coastal plain of eastern China influenced by climate. J Chem 2015:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yao R, Yang J, Gao P, Zhang J, Jin W (2013) Determining minimum data set for soil quality assessment of typical salt-affected farmland in the coastal reclamation area. Soil Tillage Res 128:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yazdanpanah N, Pazira E, Neshat A, Mahmoodabadi M, Sinobas LR (2013) Reclamation of calcareous saline sodic soil with different amendments (II): impact on nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium redistribution and on microbial respiration. Agric Water Manag 120(1):39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yu J et al (2014) The spatial distribution characteristics of soil salinity in coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta. Environ Earth Sci 72(2):589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhai L, Jokela EJ, Gezan SA, Vogel JG (2015) Family, environment and silviculture effects in pure- and mixed-family stands of loblolly ( Pinus taeda L.) and slash ( P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliotttii ) pine. For Ecol Manag 337:28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhai L, Jiang J, DeAngelis D, Sternberg LSL (2016) Prediction of plant vulnerability to salinity increase in a coastal ecosystem by stable isotope composition (δ18O) of plant stem water: a model study. Ecosystems 19(1):32–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang T, Wang T, Liu KS, Wang L, Wang K, Zhou Y (2015) Effects of different amendments for the reclamation of coastal saline soil on soil nutrient dynamics and electrical conductivity responses. Agric Water Manag 159(s 1–3):115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaofeng Yan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lu Zhai
    • 3
  • Qiuliang Deng
    • 1
  • Defeng Pan
    • 4
  • Shikai Gao
    • 2
  • Chaowang Zou
    • 1
  1. 1.Hubei Provincial Water Resources and Hydropower Planning Survey and Design InstituteWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Efficient Irrigation-Drainage and Agricultural Soil-Water Environment in Southern China, Ministry of Education, College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  4. 4.Jiangsu Coastal Water Conservancy Research InstituteDongtaiChina

Personalised recommendations