Forms of Cu (II), Zn (II), and Pb (II) compounds in technogenically transformed soils adjacent to the Karabashmed copper smelter
The aim was to study Cu (II), Zn (II), and Pb (II) forms in technogenically transformed soils adjacent to the Karabashmed copper smelter.
Materials and methods
Studies were performed in the plume zone of the Karabash smelter and in the floodplains of Ryzhii Brook and Sak-Egla River. Geomorphological and geochemical migration processes prevail in technogenic landscapes. The differentiation of landscape-geochemical conditions plays the dominant role, which determines the localization of metals. The total Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As contents and the macroelement compositions of soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence. The composition of Cu, Pb, and Zn compounds in soils was determined by the Tessier sequential fractionation. The determination of the geochemical fractions of heavy metals in soils is a key issue in the study of their mobility. The metals were fractionated into the following five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe and Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual fractions.
Results and discussion
It is shown that the total Zn and As contents in the 0- to 5-cm layer of soils on monitoring plots exceed their lithosphere clarks in hundreds of times, and the total Cu, Pb, and Cr contents exceed their lithosphere clarks in tens of times. Factors and processes controlling the distribution and transport of Cu, Pb, and Zn forms in soils were determined. According to landscape-geochemical differentiation, the eluvial (automorphic) catena (plot T4) takes the main technogenic load of dust fallouts from the Karabash copper smelter. The accumulation of material brought from above and the geochemical precipitation of discharges from tailings dumps occur in superaqual catenas (plots T1, T2, and T3). In the technogenically transformed soils, the basic stabilizers of the mobility of Cu is organic matter, for Pb it is Fe-Mn (hydro) oxides, and for Zn - it is clay minerals.
The distributions of Cu, Zn, and Pb forms in the studied technogenically transformed soils are due to a number of factors: First, these are the composition of technogenic pollutants contaminating ecosystems and the time during which the contamination occurred, and second, this is the combination of physicochemical properties controlling the buffer properties of the polydisperse system of soils and parent materials.
KeywordsHeavy metals Spolic Technosols Mobility and fractional composition Technogenic contamination South Urals
This research was supported by the Ministry of Education and science of Russian Federation, project no. 5.948.2017/PCh; the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 12-05-10074-k and no. 16-34-00573 mol_a; and Grant of President of Russian Federation no. 7285.2016.5.
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