The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of combined application of biomass ash (BA), bone meal (BM), and alkaline slag (AS) on soil acidity, nutrient contents, uptake of the nutrients by wheat, and wheat growth.
Materials and methods
A pot experiment with an Ultisol collected from Anhui province, China, was conducted to compare the effects of BA, BM, and AS applied alone and combined on soil acidity; soil nutrient contents; uptake of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg by wheat, and wheat growth.
Results and discussion
Application of BA, BM, and AS alone and combined increased soil pH and decreased soil exchangeable Al3+. BA + BM + AS showed the greatest ameliorating effect on soil acidity, and soil pH of the treatment increased by 1.24 units compared with control. Application of BA + BM + AS reduced soil exchangeable Al3+ and increased soil exchangeable calcium and magnesium to a greater extent than BA + BM and single application of the amendments. The BM-containing amendments substantially increased soil available phosphorous by 66–93% compared with control. Application of the amendments alone and combined enhanced the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg by wheat and thus promoted wheat growth and increased yield of wheat grains. Application of BA + BM + AS and BA + BM showed greater effects on nutrient uptake and wheat growth than single application of the amendments. Wheat straw weights of the two treatments were 11.1 and 10.1 times greater than that of control. The data were 2.7, 4.8, and 5.6 times for the treatments of BA, AS, and BM. The contents of Cd, Cr, Zn, and Cu in wheat grains were lower than standard limits, except for the single BA treatment.
BA + BM + AS is the best choice for amelioration of acid soils and promotion of crop production.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Alloway BJ (2009) Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans. Environ Geochem Health 31:537–548
Arai Y, Sparks DL (2007) Phosphate reaction dynamics in soils and soil components: a multiscale approach. Adv Agron 94:135–179
Brown TT, Koenig RT, Huggins DR, Harsh JB, Rossi RE (2008) Lime effects on soil acidity, crop yield, and aluminum chemistry in direct-seeded cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:634–640
Coutand M, Cyr M, Deydier E, Guilet R, Clastres P (2008) Characteristics of industrial and laboratory meat and bone meal ashes and their potential applications. J Hazard Mater 150:522–532
Etiegni L, Campbell AG (1991) Physical and chemical characteristics of wood ash. Bioresource Technol 37:173–178
Fageria NK, Baligar VC (2008) Ameliorating soil acidity of tropical oxisols by liming for sustainable crop production. Adv Agron 99:345–399
Garcia RA, Rosentrater KA (2008) Concentration of key element in North American meat & bone meal. Biomass Bioenerg 32:887–891
Garrido F, Illera V, Vizcayno C, García-González MT (2003) Evaluation of industrial byproducts as soil acidity amendments: chemical and mineralogical implications. Eur J Soil Sci 54:411–422
Guo JH, Liu XJ, Zhang Y, Shen JL, Han WX, Zhang WF, Christie P, Goulding KWT, Vitousek PM, Zhang FS (2010) Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Science 327:1008–1010
He JZ, Shen JP, Zhang LM, Zhu YG, Zheng YM, Xu MG, Di HJ (2007) Quantitative analyses of the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea of a Chinese upland red soil under long-term fertilization practices. Environ Microbiol 9:2364–2374
Hossain AKMZ, Ohno T, Koyama H, Hara T (2005) Effect of enhanced calcium supply on aluminum toxicity in relation to cell wall properties in the root apex of two wheat cultivars differing in aluminum resistance. Plant Soil 276:193–204
Hu HW, Xu ZH, He JZ (2014) Ammonia-oxidizing archaea play a predominant role in acid soil nitrification. Adv Agron 125:161–302
Hu ZY, Xu CK, Zhou LN, Sun BH, He YQ, Zhou J, Cao ZH (2007) Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen compounds to N deposition in a broadleaf forest of southern China. Pedosphere 17:360–365
Illera V, Garrido F, Vizcayno C, García-González MT (2004) Field application of industrial by-products as Al toxicity amendments: chemical and mineralogical implications. Eur J Soil Sci 55:681–692
Kopittke PM, Blamey FPC (2016) Theoretical and experimental assessment of nutrient solution composition in short-term studies of aluminium rhizotoxicity. Plant Soil 406:311–326
Li JY, Wang N, Xu RK, Tiwari D (2010) Potential of industrial byproducts in ameliorating acidity and aluminum toxicity of soils under tea plantation. Pedosphere 20:645–654
Li JY, Liu ZD, Zhao WZ, Masud MM, Xu RK (2015) Alkaline slag is more effective than phosphogypsum in the amelioration of subsoil acidity in an Ultisol profile. Soil Till Res 149:21–32
Masud MM, Li JY, Xu RK (2014a) The use of alkaline slag and crop residue biochars to promote base saturation and reduce soil acidity in an acidic Ultisol. Pedosphere 24:791–798
Masud MM, Guo D, Li JY, Xu RK (2014b) Hydroxyl release by maize (Zea mays L.) roots under acidic conditions due to nitrate absorption and its potential to ameliorate an acidic Ultisol. J Soils Sediments 14:845–853
Masud MM, Li JY, Xu RK (2015) Application of alkaline slag and phosphogypsum for alleviating soil acidity in an Ultisol profile: a short term leaching experiment. J Soils Sediments 15:365–373
Mozaffari M, Rosen CJ, Russelle MP, Nater EA (2000) Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stem: implications for ash management. J Environ Qual 29:963–972
Mozaffari M, Rosen CJ, Russelle MP, Nater EA (2002) Nutrient supply and neutralizing value of alfalfa stem gasification ash. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:171–178
Nogalska A, Czapla J, Nogalski Z, Skwierawska M, Kaszuba M (2012) The effect of increasing dose of meat and bone meal on maize (Zea mays L.) grown for grain. Agric Food Sci 21:325–331
Pansu M, Gautheyrou J (2006) Handbook of soil analysis: mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg
Park BB, Yanai RD, Sahm JM, Lee DK, Abrahamson LP (2005) Wood ash effects on plant and soil in a willow bioenergy plantation. Biomass Bioenerg 28:355–365
Reuss JO, Johnson DW (1986) Acid deposition and the acidification of soils and waters. Springer-Verlag, New York
Shen JP, Xu ZH, He JZ (2014) Frontiers in the microbial processes of ammonia oxidation in soils and sediments. J Soils Sediments 14:1023–1029
Shi RY, Li JY, Xu RK, Qian W (2016) Ameliorating effects of individual and combined application of biomass ash, bone meal and alkaline slag on acid soils. Soil Till Res 162:41–45
Soratto RP, Fernandes AM (2016) Phosphorus effects on biomass accumulation and nutrient uptake and removal in two potato cultivars. Agron J 108:1225–1236
Sun B, Poss R, Moreau R, Aventurier A, Fallavier P (2000) Effect of slaked lime and gypsum on acidity alleviation and nutrient leaching in an acid soil from Southern China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 57:215–223
Sungur A, Soylak M, Ozcan H (2014) Investigation of heavy metal mobility and availability by the BCR sequential extraction procedure: relationship between soil properties and heavy metals availability. Chem Spec Bioavailab 26:219–230
Valle SR, Pinochet D, Calderini DF (2009) Al toxicity effects on radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat cultivars under field conditions. Field Crop Res 114:343–350
Valle SR, Pinochet D, Calderini DF (2011) Uptake and use efficiency of N, P, K, Ca and Al by Al-sensitive and Al-tolerant cultivars of wheat under a wide range of soil Al concentrations. Field Crop Res 121:392–400
Von Uexküll HR, Mutert E (1995) Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soil. In: Date RA, Grurdon NJ, Ge R, Probert ME (eds) Plant-soil interaction at low pH: principles and management. Kluwer, Drodrecht, pp 5–19
Wang L, Butterly CR, Yang XL, Wang Y, Herath HMSK, Jiang X (2012) Use of crop residues with alkaline slag to ameliorate soil acidity in an Ultisol. Soil Use Manage 28:148–156
Wong MTF, Nortcliff S, Swift RS (1998) Method for determining the acid ameliorating capacity of plant residue compost, urban waste compost, farmyard manure, and peat applied to tropical soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 29:2927–2937
Xu RK, Coventry DR (2003) Soil pH changes associated with lupin and wheat plant materials incorporated in a red-brown earth soil. Plant Soil 250:113–119
Ylivainio K, Uusitalo R, Turtola E (2007) Meat bone meal and fox manure as P sources for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) grown on a limed soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 81:267–278
Yuan JH, Xu RK, Zhang H (2011a) The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresour Technol 102:3488–3497
Yuan JH, Xu RK, Wang N, Li JY (2011b) Amendment of acid soils with crop residues and biochars. Pedosphere 21:302–308
Zeng FR, Ali S, Zhang HT, Ouyang YN, Qiu BY, Wu FB (2011) The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ Pollut 159:84–91
Zhang HM, Wang BR, Xu MG, Fan TL (2009) Crop yield and soil responses to long-term fertilization on a red soil in southern China. Pedosphere 19:199–207
This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development of China (No. 2016YFD0200302) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB441003).
Responsible editor: Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel
About this article
Cite this article
Shi, R., Li, J., Ni, N. et al. Effects of biomass ash, bone meal, and alkaline slag applied alone and combined on soil acidity and wheat growth. J Soils Sediments 17, 2116–2126 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1673-9
- Alkaline slag
- Biomass ash
- Bone meal
- Heavy metals
- Pot experiment
- Soil acidity amelioration