Nutrient phytoavailability in a mine soil amended with technosol and biochar and vegetated with Brassica juncea
- 272 Downloads
Mine soils usually have low nutrient contents and poor fertility conditions which limit the establishment of vegetation and the application of phytomanagement reclamation technologies. Organic materials have been used as soil amendments to reclaim mine soils, as they can provide organic matter and nutrients.
Materials and methods
An amendment mixture made from organic materials (technosol made of waste and holm oak wood biochar) was added in different proportions to a mine soil in order to evaluate its effect on the phytoavailability of nutrients and on the fertility conditions of the mine soil. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in pots with the mine soil amended with the mixture of technosol and biochar and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. plants. The mine soil was collected from the settling pond of a depleted copper mine in Touro (NW Spain). The CaCl2-extractable (phytoavailable) concentration of nutrients and a series of characteristics generally associated with soil fertility were determined in order to study the effect of the organic amendment on the mine soil.
Results and discussion
The results showed that the untreated settling pond soil had an extremely acid pH (2.96), undetectable concentrations of TC, and insufficient levels of TN and K for the growth of most plant species. Amending with technosol and biochar increased the concentration of TN (from an undetectable concentration to 11,400 mg kg−1), K (from 4.22 to 2601 mg kg−1), Mg (from 185 to 2329 mg kg−1), Mn (from 14.56 to 408 mg kg−1) and Na (from 27.66 to 2361 mg kg−1) in the mine soil. The application of wastes also reduced the phytoavailable concentration of Co, Cu, Fe and Ni. However, the concentration of Zn increased, probably due to the Zn provided by technosol components such as sewage sludges.
The application of technosol and biochar to a mine soil improved its fertility conditions, the phytoavailable concentration of nutrients in the soil and generally decreased metal bioavailability, resulting in a reduction of copper toxicity. Organic amending also promoted the re-establishment of vegetation. The use of technosol made of wastes and biochar combined with planting B. juncea could be an economic and environmentally-friendly technique for the reclamation of nutrient-deficient mine soils.
KeywordsBiochar Brassica juncea Mine soil Nutrients Technosol
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments, which helped to improve the quality of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
The present research did not involve any human participants and/or animals.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Gall JE, Rajakaruna N (2013) The physiology, functional genomics, and applied ecology of heavy metal-tolerant Brassicaceae. In: Lang M (ed) Brassicaceae: characterization, functional genomics and health benefits. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp 121–148Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A (2011) Trace elements in soils and plants. 4th ed. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Kim HS, Kim KR, Ok YS, Lee YK, Kluge B, Wessolek G, Kim WI, Kim K-H (2015) Examination of three different organic waste biochars as soil amendment for metal-contaminated agricultural soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:1–11Google Scholar
- Macías F, Calvo de Anta R (2009) Niveles genéricos de referencia de metales pesados y otros elementos traza en los suelos de Galicia. Xunta de Galicia, SpainGoogle Scholar
- Marx ES, Hart T, Stevens RG (1999) Soil test interpretation guide (p 7). Oregon, USAGoogle Scholar
- Neilson S, Rajakaruna N (2012) Roles of rhizospheric processes and plant physiology in applied phytoremediation of contaminated soils using Brassica oilseeds. In: Anjum NA, Ahmad I, Pereira ME, Duarte AC, Umar S, Khan NA (eds) The plant family Brassicaceae, 21. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 313–330Google Scholar
- Porta J (1986) Técnicas y experimentos en Edafología. Collegi Oficial D’Enginyers Agronoms de Catalunya, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
- Shaheen SM, Tsadilas CD, Rinklebe J (2013) A review of the distribution coefficient of trace elements in soils: influence of sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 201–202:43–56Google Scholar
- USDA (1998) Soil quality indicators : pHGoogle Scholar
- Van Ginneken L, Meers E, Guisson R, Ruttens A, Elst K, Tack FMG, Vangronsveld J, Diels L, Dejonghe W (2007) Phytoremediation for heavy metal-contaminated soils combined with bioenergy production. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 15:227–236Google Scholar
- Zhao R, Jiang D, Coles N, Wu J (2015) Effects of biochar on the acidity of a loamy clay soil under different incubation conditions. J Soils Sediments 15:1919–1926Google Scholar