Slow nitrogen release from humic substances modified with aminoorganosilanes
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The purpose of the present study is to evaluate slow-release nitrogen capabilities of soil amendments obtained by modification of humic materials from peat and lignite with alkoxyorganosilanes carrying different amine substituents.
Materials and methods
The humates from lignite and peat were modified using (3-aminopropyltriethoxy)-silane (APTES) and (1-aminohexamethylenene, 6-aminomethylene)-triethoxysilane (AHATES). The obtained derivatives were characterized using elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nitrogen release in the form of ammonia or nitrate was evaluated using dissolution tests under sterile aqueous conditions as well as long-term soil experiments. Ammonium and nitrate were determined using ion-selective electrodes. Activity index (AI) was calculated from the dissolution tests. For soil trials, arable Retisol was sampled from 0- to 5-cm layer in Yaroslavl region (Russia). The soil experiments were conducted over 78 days using (NH4)2SO4 as an activator of nitrification and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole as an inhibitor of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria.
Results and discussion
Modification of lignite and peat humates leads to an increase in nitrogen content up to 2 and 4.3 %, respectively, in case of APTES, and up to 3 and 6 %, respectively, in case of AHATES. All humic derivatives gradually released N upon dissolution in water over 6 days up to 51 % of the total N. The AI values ranged from 4 to 13 %. Amendment of soil with the modified humic materials induced an increase in nitrate content resulting from nitrification of released ammonia by soil microflora. This was confirmed by aminotriasole experiments. The nitrogen release occurred slowly: over the first week of incubation, it did not exceed 36–69 % of the total N content. The higher release rate of ammonium nitrogen was observed for CHS-AHATES versus CHS-APTES derivative, whereas no difference was seen between the two peat derivatives, which showed release rate on the level of CHS-AHATES derivative. Positive effect of all modified humic materials lasted over 78 days.
Modification of lignite and peat humates with two aminoorganosilanes carrying one and two nitrogen atoms in the amine substituent brought about twofold to threefold enrichment of the parent humic materials with nitrogen, which was capable of slow release upon incubation in soils. It was released in the form of ammonia and transformed to nitrates by autotrophic nitrifying soil microflora. There was no clear relationship established between structure of amine substituent of organosilane and slow-release properties of the corresponding humic derivatives. The conclusion was met that principal application of aminoorganosilane derivatives of humic substances (HS) is soil structuring, whereas nitrogen-fertilizing capabilities might be considered as beneficial added-value feature of these humic products.
KeywordsAminoorganosilanes Humic substances Modification Slow nitrogen release fertilizers Soil amendments
This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 16-14-00167).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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